Afghanistan history, internal political development, foreign relations, and much of its existence as an independent state are determined by its geographical location at the confluence of Central, Western, and South Asia. Over the centuries, waves of migrants passed through the region, described by historian Arnold Townby as “a whirlwind of the ancient world” – leaving a trace of ethnic and linguistic groups. In modern times, and with antiquities, vast armies of the world passed through Afghanistan, temporarily establishing local control and often dominating Iran and northern India.
Although it was the scene of great empires and flourishing trade for more than two thousand years, Afghanistan did not become a truly independent nation until the twentieth century.
Afghanistan history Mahmud of Ghazni, the 11th century conqueror who formed an empire from Iran to India, is regarded as Afghanistan’s greatest conqueror.
Genghis Khan occupied the area in the 13th century, but it was not unified as a single country until the 1700s. By 1870, when the area was attacked by various Arab conquerors, Islam had taken root.
During the nineteenth century, Britain sought to annex Afghanistan to Russia, seeking protection of its Indian Empire, resulting in a series of British-Afghan wars (1838382, 1878-80, 1919-21). ۔
Afghanistan history 1921
After the First World War, the annoying British, the Third British – were defeated in the Afghan War (1919-21), and Afghanistan became an independent nation. Concerned that Afghanistan has lagged behind the rest of the world, Amir Amanullah Khan launched a vigorous campaign of social and economic reforms.
Afghanistan history 1926
Amanullah declares Afghanistan a monarchy instead of the emirate and proclaims himself king. He initiated a number of modernization projects and is seeking to limit the power of the National Council of Loya Jirga. Disappointed with Amanullah’s policies, took up arms in 1928 and in 1929 left the king and left the country.
Afghanistan history 1933
Zahir Shah becomes king. The new king brings stability to the country and he is ruling for the next 40 years.
The United States formally recognizes Afghanistan.
The British separated from India, forming a predominantly Hindu but secular state of India and an Islamic state of Pakistan. The Pakistani nation includes a long, largely uncontrollable, border with Afghanistan.
Pro-Soviet pro-General Mohammed Daud Khan, King’s cousin, became prime minister and is looking to the Communist nation for economic and military support. They also introduced a number of social reforms, including allowing women to be more public.
Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev agreed to help Afghanistan, and the two countries became close allies.
As part of David’s Reform, women are allowed to go to university and enter work.
The Afghan Communist Party is stealthily forming. The main leaders of the group are Babrak Karmal and Noor Mohammad Taraki.
Daoud khan overthrew the last king, Muhammad Zahir Shah, in a military coup. Khan’s government, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, came to power. Daoud khan ends the monarchy and makes his name president. The establishment of the Republic of Afghanistan is established with a strong relationship with the USSR.
Daoud khan has proposed a new constitution that empowers women and largely works to modernize the Communist state. They also infuriated opposition, and forced many to withdraw from the government.
Daoud khan was killed in Communist uprising. Noor Mohammad Taraki, one of the founding members of the Afghan Communist Party, takes control of the country as president, and Babrak Karmal has been named deputy prime minister. They declare independence from Soviet influence, and declare their policies to be based on Islamic principles, Afghan nationalism and social justice. Turkey signs a friendship agreement with the Soviet Union. But the rift between another influential Communist leader, Hafizullah Amin, leads to a war between the two parties.
At the same time, conservative Islamic and ethnic leaders, who objected to the social changes offered by Khan, launched an armed uprising in the countryside. In June, the guerrilla movement was formed to fight a Mujahideen-backed government.
US Ambassador Adolf Dobbs is dead. US stops aid for Afghanistan The struggle for power begins between the deputy prime minister and Hafizullah Amin. Turkey was killed September 14 in a confrontation with Amin’s supporters.
The USSR attacked Afghanistan December 24 to strengthen the troubled Communist government. Amin and many of his followers were executed on December 27. Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal becomes Prime Minister. Carmel was strongly opposed and Russia staged violent public demonstrations.
By the early 1980s, the mujahideen were united against the rebel Soviet invaders and the Russian-backed Afghan army.
About 2. 2.8 million Afghans have fled Pakistan, and another 1.5 million have fled Iran. Afghan guerrillas take control of the countryside, and the Soviet military occupies the urban areas.
Although they immediately followed the Soviet invasion. The latter claims to have traveled to Afghanistan, but Saudi Islamist Osama bin Laden made his first documentary trip to Afghanistan to assist anti-Soviet fighters.
UN investigations report human rights abuses in Afghanistan
Mujahideen are receiving weapons from the US, the UK and China via Pakistan.
In September, Osama bin Laden and 15 other Islamists formed a group called al-Qaeda, or “Asad,” to continue their Jihad, or “holy war,” against the Soviets and others. They oppose their goals of being a pure nation under Islam. General Chat Chat Lounge With their belief that the Soviet war in Afghanistan is directly linked to their war, they claim victory in their first battle, but also begin to shift their focus to the United States, saying The rest is constrained by the formation of the superpower state. On Islam
The US, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Soviet Union signed a peace treaty in Geneva that guarantees the independence of Afghanistan and the withdrawal of 100,000 US troops. After the Soviet withdrawal, the mujahideen continued their resistance against the government of Soviet-backed Communist President Dr. Muhammad Najibullah, who was elected president of the puppet Soviet state in 1986. Afghan guerrillas designate Sabatullah Mujadidi as the head of their deported government.
Mujahideen and other insurgent groups attacked the capital, Kabul, with the help of the Trin Kot government troops and ousted Najibullah from power. Legend guerrilla leader Ahmad Shah Massoud enters the capital. The UN protects Najibullah. The mujahideen, a group that is already starting to break out due to the war on the future of Afghanistan, has become a great Islamic state under President Burhanuddin Rabbani.
The newly formed Islamic militia, the Taliban, has come to power over promises of peace. Most Afghans, endured by years of drought, famine and war, approve of the Taliban to uphold traditional Islamic values. The Taliban make poppy cultivation illegal for opium trade, reduce crime and reduce women’s education and employment. Women need full veil and are not allowed outside alone. Islamic law is enforced through ordinary executions and executions. The US refuses to recognize the Taliban’s authority.
Continuous drought has destroyed the farmers and many rural areas have not been settled. More than one million Afghans migrated to neighboring Pakistan, where they are infiltrated in refugee camps.
The Taliban publicly execute Najibullah.
Ethnic groups in the north, under Massoud’s northern alliance, and in the south, part of which was co-sponsored by Hamid Karzai, continue to fight the Taliban to take control of the country.
After al-Qaeda bombings on two US embassies in Africa, President Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks against bin Laden’s training camps in Afghanistan. The attacks are reminiscent of Saudi and other terrorist group leaders.
Now considered an international terrorist, bin Laden is widely believed to be hiding in Afghanistan, where he is cultivating thousands of followers in terrorist training camps. The United States demands that bin Laden be deported to trial for embassy bombings. The Taliban refused to hand him over. The UN punishes Afghanistan with sanctions for restricting trade and economic development.
Ignoring international protests, the Taliban, Bamyan, threaten to destroy Buddhist statues in Afghanistan, saying they are against Islam.
September 4, 2001
A month after his arrest, the Taliban prosecuted eight international aid workers for spreading Christianity. Under Taliban rule, following religion is a death sentence. The group has been imprisoned in several Afghan prisons for several months and was eventually released on November 15.
September 9, 2001
Massoud, who is still a northern rebel and top rebel in the country, was killed by the killers as journalists.
September 11, 2001 Afghanistan History
The hijackers made four commercial aircraft commanders and dropped them at the Pentagon and Pennsylvania fields outside of New York’s World Trade Center Towers, Washington, DC, killing thousands of people. A few days later, US officials say Bin Laden, the Saudi exile hiding in Afghanistan, is the main suspect in the attack.
October 7, 2001 Afghanistan History
After demanding that the Taliban oust bin Laden, US and British forces launched an airstrike against targets in Afghanistan. US warplanes began bombing Taliban hideouts and hideouts belonging to the al-Qaeda network. The Taliban declare that they are ready for Jihad.
November 13, 2001
After weeks of intense fighting with Taliban forces, the Northern Alliance entered Kabul. The retreating Taliban fled south to Kandahar.
December 7, 2001
Taliban fighters have abandoned their last stronghold in Kandahar as militia control over Afghanistan is breaking down. Two days later, the Taliban leaders handed over the group to the last Afghan territory, Zabul Province. The move announces to the Pakistani-based Afghan Islamic Press that “Taliban rule in Afghanistan is completely over”.
December 22, 2001
Hamid Karzai, a royal and ethnic Pashtun, has taken oath as the leader of the interim government in Afghanistan. Karzai entered Afghanistan after several years of exile in neighboring Pakistan. At a US-organized conference to determine the transitional government, Karzai already has the support of the United States, and by the end of the conference, the leader of the government is elected six months.
In June, the Loya Jirga, or Grand Council, selects US-backed Hamid Karzai as interim leader. Karzai selects members of his government who will serve until 2004, when the government will need to hold elections.
After escalating violence, NATO assumed security in Kabul in August. The effort is for the first time a security organization outside Europe.
The Loya Jirga has adopted a new constitution that results in the participation of nearly 500,000 Afghans, some of whom attend public meetings in the villages. The new constitution calls for a president and two vice presidents, but the prime minister has been removed at the last. According to the constitution, the official languages are Pashto and Dari. Also, the new constitution calls for equality for women.
Presidential elections took place. Of the 18 presidential candidates, including the interim leader, more than 10.5 million Afghans register to vote and elect. Karzai was elected with 55 percent of the vote.
The nation holds its first parliamentary election in more than 30 years. The peaceful vote results in the first parliament meeting in December.
Between the Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters and the Afghan government’s continued fighting, NATO expanded its peace operation to the southern part of the country. After taking over US-led troops, Taliban fighters launched a bloody wave of suicide attacks and raids against the international military.
The Afghan government and NATO have confirmed that Taliban commander Mullah Dadullah was killed during a US-led operation in southern Afghanistan.
The international community has pledged more than $ 15 billion for Afghanistan at a donors’ conference in Paris, while Afghan President Hamid Karzai promises to fight corruption in the government.
President Barack Obama nominated Richard Holbrooke as Special Envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan. Mr Obama has announced a new strategy for the Afghanistan war, in which more troops and civilian trainers will be sent to the country, plus he has ordered another 17,000 combat troops. The strategy also includes helping Pakistan in the fight against militants.
President Barack Obama accepted the resignation of General Stanley McChrystal as Afghanistan’s top commander on a critical comment made in a Rolling Stone article, and nominated General David Petraeus, the head of the American Central Command, as his replacement. What is it.
US forces cordoned off a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, and killed al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden May 2 at local time.
President Hamid Karzai has called on US forces to abandon US cows and return to their bases when an American soldier killed 16 Afghan civilians in their homes.
The Afghan army conducts all military and security operations with NATO forces.
Ashraf Ghani became Afghanistan’s president in September after allegations of electoral fraud and a partnership with power rival Abdullah Abdullah.
In December, NATO officially ended its combat mission in Afghanistan. US-led NATO troops are left to train and advise Afghan forces.