Ahmad Shah Abdali

Ahmad Shah Abdali

Ahmad Shah Abdali, Later known as Ahmad Shah Durrani Empire Was the Founder of modern Afghanistan. Before being elected king in 1747, Abdali was a cavalry general under Persian Emperor Nadir Shah. disintegrating his reign, he built a vast empire that stretched from eastern Persia to northern India and from the Amu Daring to the Indian Ocean Abdali was also a Pashto poet.

Ahmad Shah Abdali (father Ahmed Shah)

as he is affectionately called, lived a colorful life. Abdali was born in 1722 to Zaman Khan Abdali from the Pashtun tribe, and Zarghona Alkozai 2, also a Pashtun. Scholars dispute that Durrani was born in Herat or Multan 3. He was his father’s second son. Durrani’s father was governor of Herat, which makes it easy to believe that he was born in Herat. However, before Durrani was born, his father was imprisoned by the Persians, and after his release he chose Multan and traveled to Multan because he had a family there When Zaman Khan returned to Afghanistan to fight the Persians, he apparently left his wife in Multan. Some sources believe that it is Alokzai. Unfortunately, Zaman Khan died when Durrani was still a young child, how, it is not known.

Afghanistan Map 1732
Afghanistan Map 1732

There is not much information about Durrani’s childhood, but probably after his father’s death, he was raised by his mother and his mother’s brothers Durrani’s teenage years are well known, as he became more involved in the struggle for ‘politics’ and the Pashtuns living under the Persian Empire 4

It is known that out of fear, Durrani’s mother handed over her daughter to Haji Ismail Khan, the new governor of Herat, who loves Durrani and sends her to the suburbs of Herat province No more was written about Durrani until 1732 when he and his older brother fled to Kandahar, where they were arrested by the ruler Mir Hussein for their hatred of Hussein from the Abdali tribe Fortunately, Nadir Shah soon conquered Kandahar in 1738, and the boys were released from prison. This is when Nadir Shah meets young Durrani and loves him.

By 1740, Durrani and his older brother joined Nadir Shah’s forces, among other members of the Abdali tribe. Abdali is known as the backbone of Nadir Shah’s army. Durrani held various positions throughout his tenure as part of his personal staff, with Naderi Shah, treasurer, and “organized” officer. Meanwhile, Nadir Shah and his army raided Delhi, occupying Moor Throne and Koh-i-Noor Diamond 5. At the same time Nizam-ul-Mulk was Kulich Khan Asfaj, a former prime minister and physical identity expert.

Saw Durrani and told Nader Shah that he had seen “signs of greatness” in him and “predicted that he was destined to be king Not only did Nader Shah believe and agree with him, but after that he talked to the young Durrani, of whom there are even written articles about him: Remembering Ahmad Khan Abdali, my Later the kingdom will give you. But be gentle with the offspring of the rare. “The King told Durrani (Singh 1959 31 31). Durrani fulfilled his promise by helping his son, Timur Shah, grandson of Nadir Shah, Mirza Shah Rukh, get out of jail and into Mashhad city Shah Rukh offered his daughter’s hand to Timur Shah.

Nadir Shah was a mad ruler, hurting his own people. Eventually his own crew killed him in his sleep. The story goes that Nadir Shah’s wife, Bibi Sahiba, who was also an Afghan, summoned Durrani and immediately after the incident, a fight broke out between the Afghans and the Persians in Nadir Shah’s army Leader. According to Durrani historian Gunda Singh, before Nadir Shah left the royal tent where his body was laid “Ahmad Khan was able to remove Nadir Shah’s seal with his finger seized the Koh-Nur diamond and other property and Greet him. Dead body for the last time. “

Nadir Shah’s army and its territories were disbanded, and different rulers took over the heads of different regions. That is how modern-day Afghanistan (and these recent borders) was formed.

A loya jirga or meeting of tribal elders was arranged to decide who would become the next ruler. There were some men for the title, including Durrani, but it was Durrani who was eventually chosen because of his race, his charisma, his ability to be a fighter and a close relationship with Nader Shah

So in 1747, Ahmad Shah Abdali was crowned king of the Afghan tribes at a ceremony in Kandahar, which was then the capital of the empire The ceremony took place in a mosque, and Durrani was 25 years old. A mullah put wheat on his head, which means he was chosen by God and his people.

Durrani began to go by the name of Pearl of Durrani 6, Pearl – a title given by Nadir Shah (he even wore a pearl earring in his ear), as well as Ahmad Shah Abdali Ahmad Shah was against Abdali. He then changed the name of the entire Abdali tribe to Durrani.

Durrani ended his career as the new king of Khorasan, as Gunda Singh points out:

“Ahmad Shah had to solve two issues [at his peak] at that time: the organization of the Afghan tribes and the stability of his kingdom. It is true that he had the Persian model of Nadir Shah before he could run. But since Nader’s affiliation with Persia was no different than when Ahmad Shah came to Afghanistan, it was not easy to mold Afghans in Persian The Persians had been accustomed to absolute obedience to an authoritarian system of government for centuries.

So rare, albeit foreign, it succeeded without the fierce opposition of the established monarchy, and it proved to be a very favorable situation Ahmad Shah, on the other hand, had to find the kingdom for the first time between a warlike and free people with a brief experience of a rare kingdom, whereby he was forced to pay tribute, to a foreigner to strengthen his grip. Loved by the love of hate more than equality, suffering in their blood they will probably be viewed more proudly than the cruelty of a foreign master of their own nation. So he had to go his own way. “(Singh 1959; 33)

Durrani made a great plan. He first returned to the former Abdis, now the intermediaries, his land, receiving their support. He was “a king who extended Afghan powers, gained Afghan nationality, spreading Afghan ideas” (Singh 1959 34 34). Since Malik was so tribal, he sought the support of the tribal chiefs – without which he would not be able to control a tribe. He was loyal and very patriotic to his people. He decided to exert an enormous impact on the Afghans through foreign wars, and with the victories, he was able to retain and supply the army, maintain its credibility, and destroy the tribal chiefs

Between 1747 and 1748, he conquered Ghazni from Ghazni, and traveled to Kabul and then to Peshawar. Until 1749, Durrani and his army controlled Punjab, Sindh and Kashmir. By 1757, Durrani controlled all of modern-day Afghanistan

After the collapse of Nader Shah’s empire, many neighboring areas became dull and easy to conquer. Between 1747 and 1769, the Shah invaded (and robbed) India nine times. He and his army had taken everything possible from the cities of Delhi, Agra, Mathura and Vrindavan – there was no definite intention to rule these areas

During this time, she married Hazrat Begum, the daughter of the then Mughal king Mohammad Shah. Durrani had four sons, Suleiman Mirza, Timor Shah – who would eventually succeed in becoming his father – Alexander and Pervez.

Durrani seems to have entered the artillery in his army of Pashtun tribes in Afghanistan, and he certainly succeeded in making the army “professional (Giustozzi 2008; 3). He was a famous leader both because of his past and because of his rule. His ability to join the Afghan tribes, bring about a kind of harmony within the country and provide the basis for a modern Afghanistan was because he was capable, of truly understanding the Afghan people. It tried to spread Islam among the non-believers.

“They also sought to increase government involvement by forming a Council of Elders, which included traditionally opposing factions of the Durrani monarchy, such as many Ghazals and some non-Pashtuns […] Established a military school that was racially mixed, the inauguration of a military career for non-Pashtuns, the first postal service […] and the first press publication “(Geotz 2008 2008). On one occasion, his army occupied more than 40,000 men because its leadership affected and recruited recruits. In order to gain control of the respect of neighboring Uzbek and Baloch tribes, they had a broad mind and a compassionate attitude.” Scottish historian Mounts Nistart Elphinstone wrote enough about Durrani, but one of his references is a summary of the king’s rule:

Her military courage and activity are praised both by her own subjects and by the nations with which she was engaged It seems to have been naturally dealt with gently and gently and although it is impossible to gain free reign and perhaps maintain it in Asia, without guilt Yet the memory of an Eastern prince is not tainted by acts of cruelty and injustice.

King was also a fond poet, writing mostly in his native Pashto, but also in Persian:

By the blood, we are drowned in your love.
Young people lose their heads for you.
I have come to you and my heart has rested.
Far from you, grief wrapped like a snake.
I forget the throne of Delhi
When I miss the mountain top of my Afghan soil.
If I have to choose between the world and you,
I will not hesitate to claim your barren desert.

His poetry also shows strong feelings of patriotism and nationalism as well as the beautiful exhibition of Afghanistan.

Its empire collapsed when the Sikhs rebelled in the Punjab. Durrani condemned them, but then they rebelled. It continued for a couple of years in the early 1760s, until it finally ceased to occupy the Sikhs. Until the early 1770s, “cancer was eaten on his face, and Ahmed Shah’s enemies were eating at his empire having spent the last ten years of his life living here, on his domestic and foreign affairs. From there the management spent (Dupree 1973) 33 339). Symptoms are that he wore a silver nasal nose when cancer was eaten on his face. In June 1773, Durrani finally died of cancer at Marga, in the province of Herat, at the age of fifty. They are buried in the 7 tombs of Kandahar that still stand today.

Ahmad Shah Abdali King of the High Office
Was able to handle the affairs of his government was like a prisoner.
In his time, in fear of his greatness and greatness,
The lioness nursed the boy with her milk.
There came from all sides the ears of his enemies
A thousand reproaches from his dagger’s tongue
The date of departure for the mortality home
The year was 1186.

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