Algeria History

Algeria History

Before the conquest of France in 1830, there was no present political entity from Algeria. That is how Algeria was created by France per mile. What existed before was the tribal domains and the larger states.

Algeria is The Second Largest Country in Africa After Sudan.

Located in north Africa, Algeria is bounded by the Mediterranean in the north, Morocco and the Sahara in the west, Mauritania and Mali in the southwest, Niger in the southeast, and Libya and Tunisia in the east The present boundaries were set during the French conquest in the nineteenth century

Algeria is rich in oil, and the economy relies heavily on hydrocarbons. Petroleum and natural gas and non-fuel minerals such as advanced iron, oil phosphates, mercury, and zinc account for about 50% of the budget’s revenue. The state owns more than 450 properties owned by heavy industrial enterprises, especially steel, and estimates private, small and medium-sized businesses in trade, tourism and transportation.

Algeria is divided into 48 provinces (provinces). Each province has a province (provincial council) headed by prefectures appointed by the president and 1,539 local authorities. For each cause, the Director Education manages the school’s plans and tasks.

The population was 31,193,917 people in 2000, aged 0 to 14 years, 61 percent 15 to 64 years, and 4 percent over 64 years. Growth was estimated at 1.74 percent in 2000, down from 3.3 percent in 1988. In 1997, the death rate of children under the age of five was 4.2 percent. 13% reported nutrient deficiency. About 90% of the population is concentrated on 12% of the coastal area, some 1200 km wide. More than half (57.2%) of Algerians live in urban areas. Almost 2.5 million Algerians live in France.

The Arabs make up more than 99% of the population (about 80% of the Arabs; 20% of the population), with less than one percent of Europeans. Islam is a state-owned religion, and Sunnis constitute more than 98% of the Muslim population. There are also 110,000 devout Muslims and one million Christians. Christians and Jews together make up one percent of the population.

In 1999, an estimated 23% of the population fell below the poverty line and 39% were unemployed. About 30% of the working population is in government positions, 22.0% in agriculture, 16.2% in construction and public works, 13.6% in industry, 13.5% in commerce and services, and 5.2% in transportation and communications.

Algeria derives its name from the Algerians, meaning “island” in Arabic, referring to the small islands along the coast of the capital Algeria. The area along the Mediterranean coast has an early history, but there is no written record in the areas south of the Sahara.

The indigenous peoples of Algeria and the surrounding Mediterranean were barbarians, a name that dates from ancient Egypt to Morocco since ancient times. The origin of the Berbers is unclear, but they are believed to have migrated from Asia to North Africa. The origin of the Berber language is unknown.

Prior to the arrival of the French in 1830, Algeria was known as the Barbie Coast (a barbarian corrupt) and was notorious for pirates aboard the Christian ship. Piracy remained a serious problem until the American Navy defeated a Barbie fleet off the coast of Algeria in 1815, and it was not completely eliminated by the French-affiliated Algeria.

Algeria’s history is one of repeated attacks. The Finnish merchants (900 to 146 B.C.) established Carthage (present-day Tunisia) and established and expanded small settlements along the coast of North Africa. They were followed by the Romans (98 to 117 AD), who annexed the Berber area to the Roman Empire. In 429,

a Germanic tribe of 800,000 vandals entered Spain from Africa and stoned the cartridge. In 533, the Byzantines raided (from 429 to 536) and sacked the Vandal kingdom. For over 1000 years (from 642 to 1830), Muslim armies invaded Cairo,

and brought Islam to the barbarians. Spanish (from 1504 to 1792) constructed and paid tribute to the checkpoints. The Ottomans (from 1554 to 1830) occupied Algeria and established it as the center of the Ottoman Empire. The French (from 1830 to 1962) occupied Algeria and annexed the country. Of all the invaders, these are the Muslim and French conquests that have had the most lasting impact.

The expansion of Muslims in Algeria dates back to the first decades of Islam. Arabs lived in tents. Muslim invaders from the Barbary Coast lined up Arab leaders and soldiers in the towns but did not settle in Algiers. Berber, who was a hill man and a farmer, lived in the towns and villages of the countryside, which remained basically Berber.

Berbers were found to be involved in the religion of Muslim rulers and refrained from holding a minority status. Islam was in harmony with the barbaric society and accepting Islam gave a sense of identity and identity to itself. Between the tenth and fifteenth centuries, Berber Arab families flourished, eventually becoming Algeria,

Morocco, and Tunisia (collectively the West). Although the West (literally, the place of the sun) is considered part of the Arab world today, the enduring influence of the barbarian population gave a cultural identity to the sun, from the Islamic mainland to the east. Is.

The French army that invaded Algeria in the 1830s faced intense resistance. A large number of troops were needed to control Algeria and it was not completed until 1847. However, Algeria was annexed to France in 1842, after which the French started colonizing the whole country. French colonialists wished to rule through domestic government rather than military

authorities, and closer ties with France were established, with Algeria being considered an integral part of France with representatives in the French parliament. However, this combination was never complete and Algeria had considerable independence.

The colonial authorities implemented a policy of cultural imperialism aimed at suppressing Algerian cultural identity and redefining society with French letters. The local culture was actively abolished, mosques were converted into churches,

and the old Medina (Arab city) was pulled down and replaced by roads. The basic farming land was allotted to European settlers The white French settlers controlled most of the political and economic power, and the indigenous peoples were subdued

As the colonial process continued, a new Euro-Algerian population emerged, bringing the number to 800,000 by 1954. Half of them were of Spanish, Italian, Maltese, or other non-French origin. One and a half million Jews joined the group as a whole. The Muslim population increased from three to nine million.

The rulers allotted the Habitat land (on religious grounds, which included basic income for religious institutions, including schools) in 1843, for properly maintaining Muslim schools and mosques, or for teachers and religious leaders for a growing population.

Insufficient funds allocated to supply the appropriate number of As the colonizers initiated unwarranted changes in Muslim society, they inadvertently created Muslim resistance. It is a resistance that arises out of fear of cultural pollution and resentment of political domination.

From 1882, Europeans and Jews had a basic education. The Muslim school was established at the Governor General’s discretion. In 1892, more than five times the amount was spent on educating Europeans, as did Muslims,

who had five times as many school-age children. Since very few Muslim teachers were trained, European teachers enrolled in Muslim schools. The curriculum was in French, and there was no Arabic education. According to one estimate, in 1870, only five percent of Muslim children were in any type of school.

Initial efforts in mixed French and Muslim primary and secondary schools had little success, but improved after 1920. In 1949, French and Muslim primary schools were merged. In 1958, only 12% of all children went to school. Very few Muslims went beyond primary school.

For more than a century in French domination, Algeria’s independence came in 1962 after an eight-year war. A National Assembly was elected and a Republic was announced. Three years later, a military junta overthrew the government and ruled for 10 years before fresh elections took place. Algeria’s only political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was primarily a party to secular socialist policies.

The post-Arab liberation policy, which included replacing French with Arabic, led to clashes with the Berber population, which the French considered “the way of development.” At the same time, an Islamic revivalist movement was formed at the grassroots level aimed at establishing an Islamic state in Algeria.

After independence, free and compulsory education was guaranteed for all. School enrollment increased from 850,000 in 1963 to 3 million in 1975.

With the drastic drop in oil prices in 1986, several changes occurred. The economy shifted from a tight, centralized control to a greater emphasis on market forces. Public spending was increased in the early 1990s to upgrade education and health care. As Islamists tried to redefine Algerian identity to become more Arabic,

more and more Muslims questioned the legitimacy of the current political system, which they consider to be very secular and Western. In 1988, as a result of austerity measures and protests against food shortages, the government promised to ease the FLN monopoly on political power and work toward a multilateral system.

In 1992, democratic elections were canceled just as a victorious victory over the militant Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) took place. The president resigns and surrenders to the military, leading to a civil war between the government and Islamic fundamentalists.

The FIS laid siege to the secular government, which led to the destruction of educational institutions, the killing of students and scholars and the expulsion of more than a thousand specialists from the country. By the 1995 elections, violence had spread so much that the death toll had increased to 45,000. There were also bombings in Paris.

Reports on the impact of offering a general amnesty to the FIS in 1999 vary. Some sources have said that as a result of this offer, the Islamic Salvation Army was disbanded in January 2000 and many insurgents surrendered under the general amnesty program. However, not all violence is over. Other sources have reported that, while some of the rebels reacted to the offer and disarmed it, the FIS is still present and suspected that it was intended to stem from peace efforts.

The transition from a government economy and a one-party government to a liberal economy and a multi-faceted government was both physical and symbolic, with violence. The authoritarian, central government officials who have ruled since independence are the product of French education and many see the Algerian people as a

political-economic mafia. The Berbers (especially the Kabyles), who preferred French education and employment, went into administrative service after independence, much to the dismay of the less educated Arabs. The political upheaval arose when the enraged Islamic Salvation Front tried to gain power by imposing a radical ideology to convert Algeria into an Islamic state. In the ongoing violence. it was claimed that the division of power was again discussed

The dramatic drop in international petroleum prices in 1998 resulted in the reduction of more than 25% of government revenues from oil and gas, leaving 60% of total revenues. Education costs were at a time when educational needs were increasing.

However, in 1999, rising petroleum, prices saw a degree of optimism in relation to Algeria’s economic prospects, and it is hoped that a return to domestic political stability will attract foreign investment and lay the foundation for sustainable development. Will

Algeria, the more formally democratic and democratic republic of Algeria, is a multi-faceted socialist state based on French and Islamic law. The disease is universal and begins at the age of 18. The government established a multilateral system in September 1989. A year later, an estimated 30 to 50 legal parties emerged. The right to form political parties is guaranteed, provided that such parties are not based, on differences in religion, language, race, gender, or region.

Language: Three languages ​​are widely spoken. Arabic, the official language, is spoken by 83% of the population, though many public and business functions are found in French, which is still widely spoken. Arabic has replaced French as the language interpreter. In 1992, English was introduced as a foreign language for the first time, with English as an equivalent in French. In 1995, Berber was introduced into schools, with approximately 17 percent of the population speaking.

There are two forms of Arabic used: the classic Arabic Quran (Qur’an) and the Algerian dialectic Arabic. Classical Arabic is an essential, element of Arabic written and formal speech in Arabic Writing Arabic is important both psychologically and socially as a vehicle for Islam and Arabic culture and as a link with other Arab countries. It is a treasure trove of religious, scientific, historical and literary heritage. Berber is primarily a spoken language with about 10 dialects, some of which are borrowed for Arab words. An ancient Berber script, Tiffany Hut, is alive in some areas.

Literacy: Before the French occupation in 1830, Algeria had a literacy rate of 40%. According to the UN, after 130 years of French rule, it was even worse, as Algeria had the lowest literacy rate. Initially, with the most emphasis on formal education development, this literacy was attacked in a phased manner. The National Center for Literacy Education was established in 1964 to oversee the work of local literacy centers.

Literacy is considered essential for economic development, and from the very beginning, it was one of the main goals of free government. In 1966, only 7.9% of women and 29.9% of men were literate. In the 1970s, widespread efforts to reduce illiteracy resulted in large-scale improvements, as nominal literacy increased steadily,

reaching 48.6 percent (62.7 percent male, 35.0 percent female) in 1985 and 1991. Reached 57.4% (69.8% male, 45.5% female). In 2000, the literacy rate was 62 to 72 percent (males, 73 to 80 percent fe females, 43 to 63 per cent). Women’s literacy is improving, but it lags behind men.

Culture: Islamic culture forms a comprehensive system of thought and practice, with equal emphasis on the spiritual and physical aspects of life and their integration. All Muslims are equal before God and are equal to one another, a direction that leads to their philosophy of education for all. Learning in the Muslim culture,

a need and a religious duty, is central to Muslim thought. Muslims often quote the Prophet: “God makes it easy for those who seek to get to heaven” and the Koran: “Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave.” And “it is the duty of all Muslims to seek knowledge.”

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