The first settlements in the mainland of Andorra began later in the Ice Age, but there were no large groups in the area until after the glaciers retreated. Archaeological excavations show that in 3500-2000 BC, small groups of people lived in the valleys and caves near the Rio Valira, later known as Andorra. Later, groups of people migrated down to the mountainous terrain,
Capital: Andorra la Vella Population: 77,142 Andorra History
Andorra was originally created as a buffer state by the French leader Charlemagne during the Middle Ages. It was meant to keep the Muslim Moors out of France. The Andorrans were to fight off the Moors and protect France. In return Charlemagne would grant them a charter. There were several of these buffer states created. Andorra is the last one of these states that is still an independent country.
Andorra had a series of rulers starting with Charles the Bald, Charlemagne’s grandson, in the 7th century. The state was handed off to various leaders, sometimes as a reward and sometime through marriage. At one point there was a dispute as to whether France or Spain owned Andorra. They decided to share it. There are co-princes who rule the country; the Bishop of Urgell from Spain and the French President.
Although Andorra is a small, landlocked country, it still manages to do okay economically, mostly through tourism. It is also considered a tax haven for the rich. It uses the Euro for its currency, or money, although it is not a member of the European Union.
The Geography of Andorra
Total size: 468 square kilometers
Size Comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Geographical coordinates: 42 30N, 1 30E
World region or continent: Europe
General Terrain: The rugged mountains were dispersed through narrow valleys
Geographical low point: Rio Runner 840 meters
Geographical High Point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 meters
Climate: icy, cold, cold and hot, dry summers
Big City: Andorra La Vella (capital) 25,000 (2009), Skaldas-Ingerdeni, Inc
People of Andorra
Type of Government: Parliamentary democracy (since March 1993), which is based on a complete principle as its Head of State. The two princes are the President of France and Bishop de Argyle, Bishop of Spain, represented by local representatives.
Languages spoken: Catalan (Official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Freedom: 1278 (formed under joint surgery by the French Count Focus and the Spanish Bishop of Argyle)
National Holiday: My Lady of Meritxell’s Day, September 8 (1278)
Nationality: Indore (s)
Religions: Roman Catholic (dominant)
National anthem or song: El Gran Carlimani (Great Charlemagne)
Large industries: tourism (especially skiing), livestock raising, wood, banking
Agricultural products: rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables in small quantities. The crowd
Natural Resources: Hydropower, Mineral Water, Wood, Iron Ore, Lead
Major exports: Tobacco products, furniture
Major imports: Consumer goods, food, electricity
Currency: Euro (Euro)
National GDP: 1 3,169,000,000