Angola and Slaves: 15th to 19th Centuries Little is known about the early history of the Angola region, which extends southward from the mouth of the Congo. From the north to the arrival of the Bantu migrants, the inhabitants are living a colonial existence, from which iron technology was introduced in the first century CE.
When the Portuguese began trading on the west coast of Africa, in the 15th century, they concentrated their energies on Guinea and Angola. Hoping for the first gold, they soon discover that slaves are the most valuable commodity for export here. But the Portuguese never set more than a footprint. European people do most of the trade in Guyana’s rivals, while local African rulers confine the Portuguese to the area around Basau.
In Angola, thousands of miles down the coast, the Portuguese find it more difficult to consolidate their initial advantage against encroachments by Dutch, British, and French rivals. Nevertheless, the strong castle of Luanda (founded in 878787 with 87 400 Portuguese Portuguese settlers) and Bengela (a fort of 1587, a town of 1617) continued in Portuguese hands.
As in Guyana, slave trade becomes the backbone of the local economy – raids further raid abroad to get kidnappers. More than one million men, women and children are shipped here in the Atlantic. In the region, unlike Guyana, this trade is mostly in the hands of the Portuguese. Almost all of the servants are in the destiny of Brazil.
Western restrictions on slave trade during the 19th century eliminated important Angola exports. The transport of slaves from Angola was banned in 1836, but slavery remained legal in the Portuguese Empire until 1875. So efforts are being made in Angola to result in the use of slaves that can no longer be sold abroad.
Land grants are made inland from Landa. Plants are set up with coffee, cotton and sugar as important crops. But as a result of these conflicts, continued conflict with the locals of the Congo, Mando and Ombu. When the European struggle for Africa began in the 1880s, Angola was a very restless region. This is the case for most periods.
The colonial period: 1885-1975
The colonial claim about Portugal’s territory was acknowledged by other European powers in the 1880’s, and the boundaries of Portugal Angola were agreed to in Europe in 1891. Currently Portugal is in effective control of only a small part of the area, thus theoretically connected but work is already underway to open the interior.
The construction of the railway from Lunda to Milanje in the fertile highlands was started in 1885. Work on a commercially important line from Bangladesh to Katanga region started in 1902, with the aim of giving the sea access to the wealthiest. Belgian Congo Mining District The line reaches the Congo border in 1928.
Until then, the government in Portugal has undergone two violent changes, from the monarchy in 1910 to the republic and then to the military dictatorship in 1926. The effect of these changes in Angola is to tighten Portuguese control.
In the early years of the colony there was a continuation of an almost endemic war between the Portuguese and various African rulers in the region. A regular campaign of victory is now underway. One by one the local states were overwhelmed and eliminated. Until the 1920s Angola was in full control. Slavery is no longer there, but the peasantry operates on the forced system of African laborers.
In the 1950s and 1960s, three rival guerrilla groups were formed to fight for Angola’s independence. The first is the MPLA or the Movemento Popular de Libertaccio de Angola (Popular Liberation Motion Movement Angola), founded in 1956 by members of the banned Portuguese Communist Party and supported by the USSR.
Next year, the FNLA or Frante Nacional de Libertyau de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola) is established with the assistance of the United States. And in 1966 the UNITA or the União Nacional para para an Independencia Total de Angola (complete independence of the National Union of Angola) was established. UNITA has enough foreign aid in southern Angola but has enough tribal allegiance.
Portugal’s terminal problem in Angola is not directly due to any of these guerrilla groups. It is a revolt of labor, which is undergoing forced labor in the coffee and cotton gardens in the north, which first caused the country to be in chaos in 1961.
In Lisbon, the government responded well. A large number of troops have been sent to the colony. The migration of Portuguese farmers to African farms, Angola, has intensified. Reforms introduced to try to satisfy African population (improving education and health care, and eliminating forced labor)
The unrest gives guerrilla groups their chance. From the 1960s and 1970s, he was active in the campaign against the colonial power. But they are equally active in fighting each other. Civil war along with anti-colonial war.
As a result, Angola is desperate to respond positively to the uprising in Portugal in 1974. The incident was largely attributed to the dire situation of the three rebel-held African colonies in Portugal, which led to the abrupt end of the country’s long-standing right wing. There are immediate consequences for a government change in Lisbon in Africa.
The new government in Lisbon is inclined to overthrow Portugal and promote a much more expensive empire. All Portuguese colonies in Africa have gained their independence rapidly.
The Portuguese Guiana debut in September 1974. Portuguese East Africa names Mozambique in June 1975. Cape Verde, the Republic, was established in July. And Angola, in the middle of the Civil War, was released in November 1975.
Freedom: From 1975
Civil war intensified in Angola during 1975, before the Portuguese’s official withdrawal. Fighting to conquer the capital city, Linda, the MPLA is able to outrun both of its rivals. Uniteda, which claims to enjoy broader public support than other groups, says Portugal must pay its last colonial duty and oversee the elections.
But the Portuguese, wanting to get out as soon as possible, formally leave the country without handing over any government. With the USSR and Cuba guaranteed support for the capture of the capital and the MPLA, the MPLA declares itself an independent Angola government. Agostinho Nieto, a prominent poet who has led the MPLA since 1962, became president.
The unit and the FNLA formed a rival government in the Hambo, a mountainous area, from Bengala. Here they seek the support of South African forces to oust the Marxist MPLA from neighboring Namibia.
Thus the conflict in Angola becomes an extension of the Cold War. The United States funds the Unit and the FNLA and encourages South Africa to join. The USSR has provided similar support to the MPLA, while President Castro is sending large numbers of Cuban troops to Angola to spread communism in Africa. In early November 1975, South African and Cuban troops clashed in a battle in Abu Dhabi, at which point the victory for Cuba was decisively won.
South Africa’s involvement has increased in recent years due to the situation in neighboring Namibia, where rebel group SWAPO is backed by the Angola MPLA. From a South African perspective, maintaining control in Namibia and countering Communism in Angola became the only reason. But getting tired in 1988 makes a deal with Cuba. Both sides will withdraw their troops from Angola. South Africa will also be out of Namibia.
This has left the internal affairs of Angola’s civil war. The FNLA rejected the importance until the late 1980s. The rival, now under the leadership of Jose dos Santos since the death of NATO in 1979, is now the MPLA. And UNITA, still under the control of its founder, Jonas Sambi.
Since 1989, several attempts have been made by both men to achieve ceasefire. When the MPLA decides to abandon Marxism-Leninism and a one-party state, the solution is easier. In 1991 a new constitution, an agreement was reached to merge two rival forces and hold multi-faceted elections.
The elections were held permanently in 1992, and the MPLA defeated the unit and finished second. Symbi refused to accept the conclusion. Civil war has begun once more, even more violent than before. During the two-year war, it is estimated that some two million people are relocating from their homes (20% of the population). More than 20 million mines have been installed by coalition groups.
In November 1994, under UN mediation in Lusaka, a somewhat settled peace was reached. This includes the gradual dismantling of UNITA forces and the participation of the UNITA government as a political party, with Simbi as the Vice President of the nation.
However, development is far from convincing. The commotion soon shuts off the schedule. Suwambi revised his decision to serve as vice president. And Unitita is reluctant to take control of the areas that include the precious diamond mines of Angola. (Of the two major sources of wealth in the country, oil is exclusively in the hands of the MPLA, while the diamond financed the unit).
All contract references are ending in December 1998, with the return of civil war to full scale. During 1999, Unita won control of 75 percent of the countryside, forcing frightened peasants into government-controlled cities, where hunger and disease threatened the lives of hundreds of thousands. The UN World Food Program strives to provide emergency equipment for mining and ambush roads through UNITA forces. Meanwhile, the rest of the world can hardly take notice, as well as ending Kosovo’s available supply of sympathy.
No country in the world has made such a dreadful start to independence as Angola, which is potentially prosperous with its natural resources but suffers from deadly wounds.