Brazil was officially “discovered” in 1500, when a fleet under the control of the Portuguese diplomat Pedro Elores Cabral sailed between Porto Seguro, Salvador and Rio de Janeiro on his way to India. (However, there is strong evidence that other Portuguese adventurers preceded him. Dort Pecchio Pereira, in his book De Situ Orbis, describes being in Brazil, sent by King Manuel of Portugal in 1498).
The first colonizers of Brazil met with the Tupinamba Indians, a group consisting of a large population of continents. Lisbon’s earliest goals were simple: Monopolize the profitable trade of Pau Brasil, the redwood (worth painting) that gave the colony its name, and established permanent settlements. There is evidence that the Indians and the Portuguese initially worked together to cut down the trees. Later,
the need to go more inland to find the forest areas made the Pow-Brasil trade less desirable. Interest in planting gardens on clean land increased and so did the need for laborers. The Portuguese tried to enslave the Indians, but, according to long years of hard work in the fields and suffering from European diseases, many residents either fled too far or died. (When the Cabal arrived, the local population was thought to have been more than 3 million today, that number is seldom more than 200,000.) The Portuguese turned to the African-African slave trade for their manpower.
Although most settlers have preferred the coastal areas (a priority that continues to this day), some people have traveled to the mountainous areas. Among them were Jesuit missionaries, committed men who marched in search of Indian lives to “save lives”, and marched in search of Indians Indians for the notorious Benderents, slaves. (He later escaped from Indian and African slaves.)
For two centuries after the discovery of the Cabal, the Portuguese had to deal with the design of Brazilian resources with foreign powers from time to time. Although the 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain was Tordeslaus – which set boundaries for each country in its newly discovered lands – these guidelines were ambiguous,
causing occasional territorial disputes. Moreover, England, France and the Netherlands did not fully recognize the agreement, which was signed by Papal Decree, and they were looking for new lands in the pirates. Such competition sometimes strengthened the legion of Christians in the New World.
The new area faced internal and external challenges. Initially, the Portuguese guardianship could not establish a strong central government in the subcontinent. For much of the colonial period, it depended on “captains”,
lower ranks and merchants who were given control over the skipper, with land fragments often as large as their motherland. By 1549 it was clear that most of the captains were failing. The king of Portugal sent a governor general (who arrived with soldiers, priests and craftsmen) to oversee them and to set up the capital (today’s Salvador) in the naval headquarters.
At the end of the seventeenth century, it was reported that emeralds, diamonds and gold rugs had been found in the miniseries, exploding in Lisbon. The region started exporting 30,000 pounds of gold to Portugal a year. Boundaries and other fortune hunters arrived from all over, and boats of carpets, stone makers, sculptors and painters came from Europe to build cities in the Brazilian desert.
In 1763, the capital was transferred to Rio de Janeiro for a variety of political and administrative reasons. The country has successfully stopped attacks from other European countries and has taken shape. It added sugar, gold and diamonds to cotton and tobacco in its export list. With the opening of the interior, there were also opportunities for raising cattle. Nevertheless, Portugal’s policies really tended to deprive Brazil of its resources rather than the development of the local economy. The arrival of the royal family from Portugal by Napoleon’s forces in 1808 began major changes.
Empire and Republic
As Dom Jou VI and its delegation arrived in Rio, it began to change the city and its environment. Plans for the building came into motion, a bank and a mint foundation were set up along with the universities, and investments were made in the arts. Ports were opened to trade with other countries, especially England, and the whole region was encouraged. After the fall of Napoleon, Dom Zhou VI returned to Portugal, leaving his younger son,
Pedro I, to rule. But Pedro had his own ideas: he declared Brazil’s independence on September 7, 1822, and established the Brazilian Empire. Nine years later, after internal unrest and costly foreign wars, the emperor stepped aside in favor of his five-year-old son, Pedro II. A series of regents continued to rule until 1840, when the second Pedro was 14 years old, and Parliament called him the “Order of the Age.”
Pedro II’s daughter, Princess Isabel, officially ended slavery in 1888. Shortly afterwards, frustrated landowners united with the army and ended the monarchy completely, forcing the royal family to return to Portugal and establishing the first Republican government of Brazil on November 15, 1889. The easy-going presidents, who have the support of strong coffee and rubber economies, made some industrial and urban development
during the period known as the Republic. In 1930, after the assassination of his colleague, presidential candidate Gatlio Vargas seized power through a military coup rather than an election. Another rebellion ended its dictatorship in 1945. He returned to the political scene with a popular public platform and was elected president in 1951. However, for half of his tenure, he was involved in the assassination of a political rival. With his resignation from the army, he shot himself.
The next elected president, Jeslenino Cabetasiak, a visionary of Manas Gerais, decided to replace the capital of Rio de Janeiro with a grand, new, modern (symbol of a grand, new, modern ideology) that is nowhere in the middle. Will be built in General Chat Chat Lounge According to the National Development Plan’s goal, “Fifty-five in five,” it opened up the economy to the foreign capital and offered to lend to the business community.
When Brazil inaugurated in 1960, a coffin was opened. There was no money left, but key sectors of the economy (such as the auto industry) were operating at full steam. Still, the troubling times were ahead. High school education encouraged politics educators, encouraged them. Junior Kodros, the successor to the do-it-yourselfer-inspired Kobots check, resigned after serving seven months. After a desperate attempt to impose socialist reforms, Vice President of the incumbent Vargas Vice-President Zhou “Jango” Golart overthrew power only by the army on March 31, 1964. He died 13 years after his exile in Uruguay.
Military principles and beyond
Humberto Castillo Branco was the first of five generals (followed by Artur Costa E Silva, Emilio Medici, Ernesto Gesell, and Jo ۔o Figueiredo) to lead Brazil in a 20-year military rule that still haunts the nation. Surrounded by tanks and technocrats, the military presented the “economic miracle” of the 1970s. However, this did not last. From hydro-electric and nuclear power plants to the conquest of the Amazon, their planetary projects never fully succeeded and inflation rose. In 1985, power was to go into civilian hands peacefully.
The 75-year-old Democrat, who was elected president by the Electoral College, had all hopes on the shoulders of Tankardo Nevis. But, just before his expense, Nevis was hospitalized for routine surgery. He died a few days later from a common infection. The Wondering Nation followed the drama on TV. The Vice President, Jose Sarni, a former ally of the military government, took office. By the end of his five-year term, inflation had completely gone out of hand. However, Sarni oversaw the writing of a new constitution enacted in 1988, and Brazil’s first free presidential election in 30 years.
Fernando Collar de Mello, 40, from the state of Algos, took office in March 1990. Immediately set about attempting to control inflation (his first step was to stop all savings accounts in Brazil). His extravagant economic plans came to light only two years after his friend and campaign manager Paulo Cesar discovered the widespread corruption involved in “PC”. Farias. After the impeachment process, Kolar was ousted in December 1992, and Brazil’s leadership fell to Vice President Itamar Franco. With his “Palau and Real” Franco took control of inflation.
In 1994, Franco was replaced by former Treasury Secretary Fernando Henrico Cardoso. Following the order of the International Monetary Fund, Cardoso relatively. Brought economic stability, but at the cost of recession, cuts to health and education programs, and rising national debt. Their policy of selling phone companies to public industries, from banks to mines, was spared irregular practices.
In October 1998, taking advantage of a constitutional amendment that allowed personal re-election, Cardoso fought for the second time against Labor Party candidate Louis Incio “Lola” da Silva. They based their campaign on propaganda, promising to bring back economic growth and eliminate unemployment. Until the next day, Cardo was able to avoid drastic economic measures and a 35% currency depreciation. After that, new taxes and budgets were
announced, recession receded and unemployment increased. In 1999, Cardoso’s popularity was on record, leading to calls for his resignation nationwide. But Brazilians also feel amazing flexibility in political and economic pressures. Recovery can be slow and difficult, but losing trust in such a rich land is almost impossible. And in most uncertainties most Brazilians are convinced of one thing: winning the 2002 Football World Cup in football will prove to be a punch.
- Jose Fonseca
Born and raised in Minaj Gerais, Jose Fonseca left Brazil at the beginning of the military dictatorship, earning a master’s in journalism from the University of Kansas, and then returning to Brazil for more than 10 years in Europe and West Africa. Spent. As a freelance environmental journalist and translator, he now lives in Porto Alegre with his humanitarian wife, children, and cats and dogs.