Brunei history

Brunei history

The bad history of Brunei Brunei’s full name is Niagara Brunei Darussalam (country of Brunei, leader of peace) The history of Brunei’s pre-Islamic history is unclear, but archaeological evidence suggests that this country dates from the beginning of 518 AD to the Asian mainland. Was doing business with. During the 14th century and the Empire of Brunei rose to prominence in the 15th and 16th centuries, when it controlled the coastal areas of northwest Borneo,

Clementon and the Philippines. Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish began to arrive after the 16th century. Brunei lost the wealth of the Spanish and Dutch, and with the expansion of British and Dutch colonial empires, its power gradually declined. [Source: thecommonwealth.org ^^]

The Empire of Brunei rose to prominence between the 15th and 17th centuries when control over the coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered the fall due to imperial succession,

colonial expansion of European powers and internal conflicts over piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British patron. The same family has ruled Brunei for more than six centuries. Brunei largely benefits from the sectors of petroleum and natural gas, the highest per capita GDP source in Asia. [Source: CIA World Factbook]

In the 19th century, the Sultan of Brunei sought British help to defend the coast against the pirates, and in 1879 nominated James Brock, a British adventurer, as king of Sarawak. The British annexed the island of Labuan in 1846, North Borneo became a British protected state in 1888 and Brunei voluntarily accepted the status of a British protectorate under the Sultan, responsible for its foreign relations with Britain. The defeat of the District of Lemong in Sarawak in 1890 divided Brunei into two parts and to this day good relations with Malaysia have been hampered. ^^

In 1906 a treaty was reached between Britain and Brunei making Brunei a complete defender. The agreement guaranteed the succession of the ruling family, with the arrangement that a British resident advise the Sultan on all matters except local customs. In 1929 major oil sources were discovered in Syria. These and the subsequent discoveries made Brunei a rich country. A written constitution was presented,

in which Brunei was granted internal self-rule and the Legislative Council approved. The Residential Contract of 1906 was abolished, which transferred the authority of the Resident to the Sultan and appointed officers under it. On September 29, 1959, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin announced the country’s new constitution. ^^

During the 1962 uprising there were some sharp and unsuccessful attempts, prompted by the North Borneo Liberation Army. He was assisted by the British Gurkha units coming from Singapore and the Sultan declared a state of emergency. It has been renewed every two years since then. In the 1960s, Brunei considered integrating with the Malaysian Federation, which currently included the Malaysian Peninsula, Sabah,

Sarawak and the provinces of Singapore. The idea was opposed by the Brunei People’s Party, which had then held 16 seats in the 33-member Legislative Council, and instead proposed the formation of a state comprising North Borneo, Sarawak and Sabah. Finally, the Sultan decided against joining the Federation. ^^

In 1971, under an agreement with Britain, Brunei ceased to be a British protected state. The constitution was amended to give the Sultan full control over all internal affairs, Britain would retain responsibility for defense and foreign affairs. Brunei became a fully independent sovereign state on January 1, 1984.

The Ancient History of Brunei
There is archaeological evidence that the earliest modern humans existed in Borneo 40,000 years ago. These early settlers were later replaced by a series of waves of immigrants from Australia, whose descendants today form several ethnic and cultural groups living in Borneo, as well as from China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India. Upcoming immigrants are also included. [Source: Brunei Tourism ~]

There is archaeological and historical evidence that indicates that Brunei was at least in the 6th century AD. The Chinese historical record of this period is named “Polly” or “Pony” to describe ancient Brunei. According to Chinese sources, Islam reached Brunei in 1371 and at that time people used an Arabic-like script known as Javi.

The early Borneo kingdoms were under the cultural, economic and political influence of the major Hindu and Buddhist states in the Indonesian island. In this regard, there is evidence of trade with India and China up to the early 6th century, with the region having abundant trade with camphor, spices, precious forests and exotic forests, which is now Brunei. Before converting to Islam in the region, Brunei Sumatran was within the territory of the Srebijia Empire, followed by Java’s Mujtahid Empire. ~

According to the Royal Arch: “Excavations near the capital suggest that the Chinese may have controlled or at least traded in the area until 835 CE. It seems that the camphor and pepper are valuable trades. The wholesale price of Brunei Kapoor Kapoor was equal to its weight in silver. About their names and titles suggest either Hindu or Buddhist influence, not Islamic. Confirms that the state was a supporter of the Hindu-Javanese Empire, but gained and secured Chinese protection in 1408. “[Source: Royal Arch]

The mysterious tomb at Bandar Seri Begawan
Rosen Younus writes in the Burney Times, many people have passed through a small wall structure in front of the General Post Office Building at the TAIB Building’s car park yard in Bandar Seri Begawan. In fact, many people have parked their cars with it. However, many people do not realize that they really stand up to the tomb.

A tomb that is very interesting and full of mystery. It is not known whether this is a grave or not. It was said that before the World War, this place was in fact a huge hill 30 feet tall. It was blown up by a bomb during World War II and was said to be empty, though according to signs there would be at least a few people there. <=> [Source: The Daily Yunus, Brunei Times, 7 April 2007]

“The tomb is said to have belonged to a woman by the name of Deng Eiang. Brunei is the term for Deng Diang and Aiyang is the name of the person. Those who know her are called the tomb Dang Aing. Some have called it the tomb of Raja Aing. It was said that the woman was originally from the royal parents. Legend has it that it was a very sad story. According to the laws of the time, these offenses should be punished after being stoned. He was not supposed to stone them, but he could not leave them punished. So the authorities compromised.

“All they did was build a cave in the middle of the jungle (remember, most of these days lived along the Brunei River and this ‘kabar’ or grave was about a mile away) so it was far away from other Brunei. Some version said that only Dang Eiang lived in it and the other version said both of them. The air cavity was installed in this cave.

Probably. They had some food left over. It was probably because there was a small chimney where smoke could be seen coming out of the chimney, and the smoke indicated that they were still alive. They must have been kept there for a long time. Until one day, no more smoke was visible from the chimney, and everyone assumed that he or she had died.

“No one knew when the cemetery started to be erected, but perhaps someone did it because it is still technically a grave and is still there – unidentified and unconscious of a young Brunei couple. If anyone was to go to the tomb,

there is a broken tomb that tells the story of the woman and who she was, even though she was not named at the cemetery but instead she was taken to a special person. According to an article written by the Principal of the History Center, she was probably the elder whose father was of Arab origin and belonged to the Third Sultan. N. Sultan Sharif Ali was of Arab origin

“Probably. It was also during the reign of Sultan Suleiman (Ser. 1432 141485) that in 1452 it was said that the woman realized that she had committed a great sin on her own, which led to He and his employees (so it was not just one person but the whole family) voluntarily made up for his death. In terms of time and parenting context, the process was considered very serious and its Was punished in such a way.

“It was also written in Arabic on the cemetery that it is hoped that the punishment for the sin is sufficiently paid for the body of the sinner, and that they pray peacefully and a prayer. Based on the writings on the tombstone, it is believed that for every sin, the authorities must be punished. This also reflects the power of religion and to that extent. That is punished regardless of who was guilty. What happened can be a lesson to everyone.

“Although the punishment may have seemed harsh, some people have said that the punishment in life will be severe if the punishment is reduced in life. The young couple understood what they did wrong. They also understood. They should have been punished and they voluntarily accepted the punishment. This is a lesson for us too. Knowing when we do something wrong and when we have to pay for it. Hopefully the story of the young couple Will make us better people and their grave may become a permanent reminder to us. “<=>

Islam has reached Brunei
Trade with the Arabian Peninsula and with Indian Muslim traders saw the introduction of Islam in Brunei. In 1405, the king of Brunei embraced Islam and ruled as Sultan Muhammad, an empire that remained to this day.

According to the Royal Arch: “Islamic tombs have been found on 124, 1432 and 1499, and their date has been found, and a letter from Emperor P’New of China is dated 1371 and written in Arabic script. However, None of them have any inscriptions,

names or indications that they belonged to the rulers or the royal family. At the end of 1514 the Captain General of Malacca reported that although the merchants of Brunei were Muslim, they had The king remained a disbeliever. At that time, Teming Gong, a native of Malacca, was a Brunei Muslim, and it

appears that he has confirmed this information. In the following year, the Portuguese spices trade The Principal reported that it was not too long before the King’s muslims had been converted, so that the exchange could not take place in DA 1515, but in 1363. The essence of such history was that of Sultani, who founded the ruler after 1511. It will also be clear with a mention of what was. [Source: Royal Boat =]

“The lack of royal tombs and engraving headstones is still noteworthy, unless one realizes that they are buried as a Hindu or Buddhist religion, not buried.” It is evident that contemporary foreign records are not verified according to official history. The ruler of Brunei probably did not accept Islam until ca. Including a rival branch, may have followed the old religion

“The modern authors of Brunei make great efforts to reconcile the formalized Islamized version of history with Western and Chinese resources. The Sanskritized names are interpreted in such a way that any names are arranged according to Islamic names. Not to be outdone, they are simply excluded from the Malay version. However, as one historian has detailed in the records of the royal banquet records, the kings who came to the Chinese court ate pork. A Brunei historian who encountered the problem simply turned the tables and said that the relevant historian had done her hair Total contrast found. “=

Early Chinese history in Brunei
Rosen Younis wrote in the Brunei Times, “Pengran Dr. Haji Karim says in his book that the history of the Chinese in Brunei is not a brief history based on historical records in Chinese records, which go back a thousand years ago. General Chat Chat Lounge First there was a relationship between Brunei, Pauly and Polo forecasts from 502 to 566. With another advance state pony, it will be two hundred years later. [Source: Rosen Younes, Brunei Times, April 30, 2012 <>]

He said that from the era of the Song Dynasty (960 to 1296), Chinese traders were trading more extensively than traders of earlier families. The name Pony was frequently and widely described. In 977, the name of a Chinese businessman came to the port of Pueblo Zai, Brunei. With his help, Brunei was able to send an envoy to China and sign a friendship agreement. In 1264, a Chinese Muslim, by the name of King Ping Chih-mo, died in Brunei. He was the envoy of the Southern Song Dynasty. <>

“Pengran Dr. Karim noted that it was probably the 13th century that there was a Chinese community in Kota Batu. During the reign of Sultan Sharif Ali, the Third Sultan, Salsallah Raja Raja Raja Brunei (“The Brunei Kings Genealogy”) described that the Chinese built a stone wall in Kota Batu as well as built a defensive wall in Pulau Surman. Also helped General Chat Chat Lounge The Chinese report of the sixteenth century also described many Chinese in 1520 that “the Chinese were so dense that the native power had taken over.” <>

“The presence of the Chinese influenced the architecture of the buildings in Brunei at that time. Pengner Dr. Karim noted that the tomb of Sultan Bolkiah is similar to the tomb in Yangzhou and other tombs, such as the tomb of Emperor Ming in Beijing. The similarities between the layered tombs and the decoration were obvious. Other similarities include the foundation of Emperor Ming’s Palace in Nanjing and Beijing in Kola Batu and the pillars that were dug with old mosques in both cities. <>

Raja Brunei, the king of the series, also described the activities of the Chinese in the 17th century, including Chinese merchant ships in Brunei, with their captains Nang Pao, Kosi and Sei Lu. Thomas Forrest in his book “A Voyage to New Guinea and Moluccas”, 1774 – 1776, “describes the scene” in Borneo-town, the Chinese sometimes making junk, on which they load the rough output of Borneo island. And send them. China “.

He also described them settling in Brunei,” … there are many Chinese settlers, who have pepper orchards, the Chinese are very active and hard working here. They prepare and keep the shops on their junk. Offshore. “However, during the 18th century, the trade of Brunei had deteriorated and by the 19th century, many ships had not arrived in Brunei. With the opening of the Singapore Freeport, Chinese vessels stopped coming to Brunei. . “<>

The first Sultan of Brunei
The Kingdom of Brunei has the honor of being the oldest immovable empire in the world. The Kingdom of Brunei and its Malay sultan have been around for 700 years. It was founded in the thirteenth century, when a Sultan of West Borneo was born.

According to the Royal Arch: “The early history of Brunei and its ruling family has been a mystery not only because of the lack of records but also because of efforts to build an official Islamic version of history, something else. – Officially published Royal

The manuscript often varies with certified foreign sources in specific periods of history, as well as with the national epic poem, Ciara Ang Simon. Although some parts of the latter have been made public, full text publishing is prohibited because it does not always confirm the official text published. [Source: Royal boat =]

“According to the official version of the events, Brunei was founded by a band of fourteen Saudaras (brothers and first cousins), who eventually settled in the Brunei River near the present capital, and one of the first to rule. Selected on Some well-known version of the planet

Owang Simone states that he was the son of Deva Amas, all of Cangan, a supernatural being who landed in the egg-lambs in the egg. He was discovered by Sang Ajai, he was married to the daughter of the same ruler by whom he gave birth to a son. They traveled thirteen settlements in the area in search of a good ox ox. In each village, he produced thirteen (or twenty-two) other sons to thirteen

Various tribal wives, daughters of the local Pangulu. Government accounts try to Islamize its origin, but many elements of the story are clearly found in the Hindu concept of the universe,

Hiranyagarabha There is also mention of a ruler in the Islamized series, Raja Raja Brunei, named Singer Ajay. However, it is clear from the history of the other states of the region that the Sang-Ajee is actually the title used by the Hindu rulers in the region, not necessarily the name of a particular ruler. =

“Sudara elected the first ruler to rule in the New Bani state, Ang Alak Bitar, son of Deva Amas and daughter of Sang Aji. Not necessarily the greatest man among them, but because of his fitness to do so. The official account states that he traveled to Johor, embraced Islam, married the daughter of one.

The Sultan of Johor “Bekekey” and from it earned the title of Sultan Mohammad Shah. Sadly, these events date back to 1363, a hundred and a half years before the Empire of history came into existence. Neither does the Malay Annals, nor any other records, show any connection between them

In the Johor and Brunei families, nor do they mention any Sultan “astray”. The earliest mention of any marriage with Brunei is in the Sultanate of Pahang, an empire of the Malacca-Johor family, much later in the sixteenth century.

Important Sultan of Barony
The Sultan of Brunei is in a family line that dates from 600 years to 1405 when the first Sultan took over the throne, he found an empire in which the present Sultan, Haji Sultan Haji Hasanal Balkia, is the 29th ruler. The earliest history of this nation’s unique kingdom can be traced to an account taken from Chinese, Javanese, and local Brunei records. The first

The ruler, Sultan Mohammad Shah, better known as Ang Alak Bitar, has said that Brunei is responsible for bringing Islam, changing the history and cultural landscape of the nation forever. [Source: Brunei Tourism]

The second ruler was Sultan Ahmad, after which the third Arab Sultan, Sharif Ali, was considered the descendant of Hazrat Mohammad the. Also known as Sultan Barkat, he married Sultan Ahmad’s daughter and strengthened the monarchy with Islamic faith.

Behind him was Sultan Suleiman, who succeeded the most famous ruler of Brunei’s early history, Sultan Bolkia. Under Sultan Bolivia’s rule, Brunei began expanding into an empire with territorial occupations that would eventually join the island of Borneo and parts of the Philippines.

The Golden Age of Brunei focused on the reigns of two notable rulers, Sultan Bolkia and Sultan Hassan. Under his rule, the royal court of Brunei created a splendor that was contested by any other monarch in the world, and the regional and cultural influence of this country rose to prominence. Visitors can still marvel at the dignity of the golden era of Brunei, as many of the historical relics of the era are carefully preserved.

List of successors to the Sultans and the Brunei throne
The Sultan of Brunei is in a family lineage from 600 years to 1405 when the first Sultan took the throne, he found an empire in which the present Sultan, Haji Sultan, Haji Hasanal Balkiya,

Is the 29th ruler. The earliest history of this nation’s unique kingdom can be traced to an account taken from Chinese, Javanese, and local Brunei records. The first ruler, Sultan Mohammad Shah, better known as Ang Alak Bitar, has called Brunei responsible for changing Islam, changing the history and cultural landscape of the nation forever.

The second ruler was Sultan Ahmad, after which the third Arab Sultan, Sharif Ali, was considered the descendant of Hazrat Mohammad the. Also known as Sultan Barkat, he married Sultan Ahmad’s daughter and strengthened the monarchy with Islamic faith. Behind him was Sultan Suleiman, who succeeded the most famous ruler of Brunei’s early history, Sultan Bolkia. Under Sultan Bolivia’s rule, Brunei began expanding into an empire with territorial occupations that would eventually join the island of Borneo and parts of the Philippines.

The Golden Age of Brunei focused on the reigns of two notable rulers, Sultan Bolkia and Sultan Hassan. Under his rule, the royal court of Brunei created a splendor that was contested by any other monarch in the world, and the regional and cultural influence of this country rose to prominence. Visitors can still marvel at the dignity of the golden era of Brunei, as many of the historical relics of the era are carefully preserved.

List of Sultan of Brunei since 1363 (Name, Raj, Remarks, By): 1) Muhammad Shah, 1363, 1402; Abdul Majid Hassan (Maharaja Doing), 1402, 1408, died in Nanjing, China. 2) Ahmad, 1408, 1425; 3) Sharif Ali, 1425, 1432; 4) Sulaiman, 1432, 1485; 5) Boulkia, 1485, 1524; 6) Abdul-Kahir, 1524, 1530; , The Castile war between Brunei and Spain began. 8) Shah Brunei, 1581, 1582; ​​9) Mohammad Hassan, 1582, 1598; 10) Abdul Jalil Akbar, 1598;

1659; 11) Abdul-Jalil Jabbar, 1659, 1660; 12) Muhammad Ali, 1660, 1661; 12) Abdul-Hakul Mobin, 1660, 1673; 13) Mohi-ud-din, 1673, 1690; 14) Nassaruddin, 1690; 1710; 15) Hussein Hussein Kamal-ud-din, 1710, 1730, first period; 16) Mohammad Alauddin, 1730, 1737; 17) Hussein Hussein Kamal-ud-din, 1737, 1740, second period; 18) Omar Ali Saif. Uddin Aul, 1740, 1795; 19) Mohammad Tajuddin, 1795, 1807; 20) Mohammad Jamal-ul-Alam I, 1804, 1804; 21) Mohammad Kanzol Alam, 1807, 1826; 22) Mohammad Alam,

1826, 1828; 23) Umar Ali Saifuddin II, 1828, 1852, Brunei departs Sarawak to James Brooke. 24) Abdul Momin, 1852, May 30, 1885, Brunei crowned North Borneo (later known as Sabah). 25) Hashim Jalil-ul-Alam, 30 May 1885, 10 May 1906

In 1888 the British established a defense against Brunei. 26) Muhammad Jamal-ul-Alam II, May 10, 1906, September 11, 1924; 27) Ahmad Tajuddin, September 11, 1924, June 4, 1950; 28) Omar Ali Saifuddin III, June 4, 1950, October 4, 1967, Abd.; Died 1986. 29) Hassanal Bolkia, October 4, 1967, the present, Brunei gained independence from Britain in 1984.

The Empire of Brunei at its peak in the 15th and sixteenth centuries
Brunei was a very powerful kingdom in the 15th and 16th centuries. It also ruled all of Sarawak, Sabah and Borneo, as well as parts of the island of Solo and the Philippines.

The two great leaders of this period were the fifth ruler Sultan Bolkia and the ninth ruler Sultan Hassan. The vast wealth of the empire derived from international trade made a strong impression on the early European explorers. He returned to Europe with stories of gold, regalia and spectacular events.

According to Netty Royalty: “The Empire of Brunei was powerful from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries. During this period the present ruling family of Brunei also found its origin. According to the national epic poem, the present sultanate began when Diva Ames Canyon descended from heaven to an egg. Its one

The children converted to Islam and became the first Sultan. Not much is known about the first Sultans. The influence of the empire increased during the reign of the 5th Sultan Bolivia (1485-1521). This prosperous period continued till the end of the ninth sultan, the period of Hassan. After his death, the country entered the fall. [Source: Netty Realty]

According to the Royal Arch: “From the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, Chinese, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish sources often speak of the wealth and power of the empire. At least until the fifteenth century, the Sultanate of Borneo, the northern coastal region of Borneo, solo. Controlled the entire coastal areas on the parts.

Mandanao and even Luzon in the Philippines. This wealth and power naturally brought European traders, who were happy with Portuguese trade. However, the Spanish established themselves in Lausanne. Proximity, religious differences and commercial purposes soon led to a rift between Brunei and Spain. The clashes turned to hostility and eventually war. [Source: Royal Boat]

The arrival of the Europeans and the fall of the Kingdom of Brunei
The Italian scope of the Magellan mission, Penafetta, visited Brunei in July 1521. Magellan was killed in the Philippines a few months ago. Penafetta reported that there were two major cities on both sides of the Brunei River. Every city that has its own king,

One Muslim ruler and another infidel. Later, in April 1578, Spanish invaders who entered the mosque found “a flag of marble with painted and gilded images of idols”, which they then robbed. [Source: Royal Boat]

According to the Royal Arch: “The Spanish invaded Brunei in 1577 and then in 1578, when they seized and annexed the capital and its outskirts to the Spanish Crown. However, within a year, and the Sultan. Forced to retreat

‘Abd al-Qahar regained power. Shortly afterwards, another civil war ensued, which continued for several years. A resolution emerged only when the Sultan of the Philippines intervened in support of one of the parties and considered the balance of power in his favor.

The civil war was bad enough, halting trade and forcing people to migrate elsewhere. However, the cost of this help came out high. The conqueror also had to hand over a large piece of the northeastern coast of Borneo to his savior. After that, the Sultanate fell into a slow, long and steady fall. [Source: Royal boat =]

By the mid-nineteenth century, the largest sources of income were piracy and cattle raiding. As incomes were declining, taxpayers went up to extortion.

This in turn drove more people away and encouraged revolt in the provinces of the empire. It was not long before the meeting of the area became the main legitimate source of income. The remaining coastal areas and inland areas of northern Borneo were handed over to European adventures and commercial interests. =

According to Netty Royalty: In this area there were internal battles with regards to the royal succession and the rising powers of the Europeans. In 1839, with the help of the British adventurer James Brooke, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II gained the power of Sarawak.

But after a dispute between the two men, the Sultan had to recognize Sarawak’s independence in 1843. After Britain invaded Brunei Town, an agreement with Britain was reached in 1846. In 1888, Sultan Hashim Jalil-ul-Alam was signed

A treaty with Britain, which kept the empire under British protection. In addition to the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945, the country remained under British protection until its independence on January 1, 1984. [Source: Netty Realty]

James Brooke and the White Kings in Brunei
In later centuries, declining trade and colonial interventions abolished Brunei’s volume and influence, especially after James Brock’s 1838. The English adventurer was James Brock

The Sultan appointed the governor, or king, of Sarawak, after helping to end the coup. However, he soon consolidated power and began to expand the area under British control, and he established his own empire of “white kings” who ruled until World War II. During his reign,

The “White Kings” continued the invasion of the Brunei region, which was also under pressure from British trading companies that had already taken control of the current Sabah state in Malaysia. [Source: Brunei Tourism ~]

In 1841, Brunei annexed Sarawak with James Brock. In 1846, Brunei handed over Laban to Britain. In 1847, Brunei signed a trade relationship with Britain. According to the Lonely Planet: “British brave James Brock helped the Sultan to end the rebellion by militancy

Tribes. As a reward, the Sultan gave Brooke the power over parts of Sarawak. Appointing himself to King Brooke, James Brooke relieved the tribesmen, eliminated the much-feared Borneo pirates and forced the Sultan into a series of “treaties” that reduced the country.

By the far end, in 1890, it was actually split in half. This situation still exists today. If the Brunei district wants to go to Timbering, they have to go through Sarawak. [Source: Lonely Planet *]

According to the Royal Arch: “In the Middle East, Sir James Brooke became the first free and then independent monarch of Sarawak. He continued a long process of occupying or occupying the provinces until the end, his territories being the Brunei city itself. I crossed,

And he made himself the master of most parts of the North Shore. The UK needed a simple coal station and linked the island to Labuan and its dependents. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Sultanate Brunei had fallen short of the town and quickly into the eastern areas. [Source: Royal boat =]

Image sources:

Sources of text: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Vanity Fair Magazine, Brunei Tourism, Prime Minister’s Office, Brunei Darussalam, Government Brunei Darussalam, Compton

Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian Magazine, The New York Times, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, Atlantic Monthly, Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, And various books, websites and other publications.

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