Cape Verde history
Slavery, drought and neglect
When the Portuguese ships discovered Cape Verde in 1456, the islands were uninhabited but fertile enough to attract the first group of settlers six years later. They founded Ribeira Grande (now Ciudad Vella), the first European city of tropics on the island of Sao Vicente. In order to make the land work, the settlers landed near the West African coast.
Slave started importing. Genesee Investors’ plans to build large sugar gardens were never compensated, especially when the Caribbean proved so rewarding. However, the island’s’ far-reaching strategic position made it the perfect clearing house and clearing station for the transatlantic slave trade. Within a century, the islands had gained enough money to attract pirates, including a 1585 raid by Sir Francis Drake of England.
In 1747, deforestation and excessive degradation changed the pattern of the growing season, resulting in Cape Verde’s first dry record. In 100 years since 1773, three drought years have killed about 100, 000 – more than 40% of the population each time. It was just the beginning of a process that continued until the 20th century. At the same time,
the island’s economic tensions fell when Britain, France and the Netherlands challenged Portugal’s control over the slave trade. As a result, Lisbon invested in Cape Verde at good times and provided minimal support during the bad times. To prevent hunger, many people left the island, especially working on American whaling hiring hands. Even today, Cape Verdean communities themselves compete with Cape Verde’s population along the New England coast, and foreign remittances account for 20% of the GNP.
With the arrival of the marine liner in the late 19th century, Cape Verde’s fortunes were restored. It became an important stopover for coal, water and livestock, and with its deep, safe harbor became the new commercial and cultural hub of the island of Mendelo. When the aircraft replaced the liner, Cape Verde responded in kind, which opened an international airport in 1948. Designed to serve long, transatlantic flights, it is one of the most important destinations of the country’s economy.
Since most of Cape Verde’s population was of mixed descent, they were better associated with African peoples in other Portuguese colonies. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, privileged few even received education, many helped to manage the mainland colonies. Independently, 25% of the population can read (compared to 5% in Guinea-Bissau).
However, the Portuguese-literate, literate Cape Verdean was slowly becoming aware of nationalism emerging on the mainland. Soon, together with the leaders of Guinea-Bissau, they formed a joint liberation movement. In 1956, Cape Verdean intellectual Emilik Cabral (born in Guinea-Bissau) founded the Marxist-influenced Partido Afrique du Independencia da Guinea e Cabo Word (PAIGC), later named Partido Africanos de Independencia de Cabo Verde. (PAICV) placed.
As other European powers were abandoning their colonies, Antonio de Salazar, a right-wing dictator of Portugal, prepared his government with dreams of colonial greatness. From the early 1960s, Africa’s longest war of independence continued. However, most of the fighting took place in Guinea-Bissau, and in fact many middle-class Cape Verdeans remained anonymous toward independence.
Eventually, the war in Portugal became an international scandal and ended the non-violence of its dictatorship in 1974, finally a year later in Cape Verde. Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau considered the unification of the two countries seriously, but the 1980 uprising in Guinea-Bissau ended the talks.
Cape Verde since independence
Although PAICV nationalized most industries and created a one-party state, it succeeded in curbing corruption, leading to significant health and education programs.
Unfortunately, freedom did not solve the problem of drought, and in 1985, disaster struck again. This time, however, the United States and Portugal accounted for 85% of the food deficit. Their support is in a country that produces only 20% of its food supply.
By the end of the 1980s, there were increasing calls for multi-faceted democracy, and in 1990 PAICV refused, allowing lawyer Carlos Vigo to receive the Movement of Mercury demo (MPD). With the central right-wing policy of political and economic liberalization, the MPD won power in the 1991 elections. Privatization and foreign investment – especially in tourism – however,
only yielded results, and in 2001, the PACV reclaimed power. This time, he promised to implement a strategic financial and economic management policy – largely the result of the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) mandate.
Cape Verde today
At the beginning of the elections in early 2006, the election was mainly in the eyes of the IMF between the shades of gray. Tourism is one of the country’s main development industries