Central Asia And Turkestan History
Central Asia And Turkestan History has been the epicenter of one of the world’s greatest civilizations, and the region has witnessed major revolutions. Human civilizations have been created and disappeared. This is a huge area. Historically it was called Turkestan, which included Chinese Turkestan, Russian Turkestan and some parts of Afghanistan. The area of Central Asia still covers 4 million square kilometers.
There are currently five Soviet-era republics in Kazakhstan, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
The area beyond the Jihadi River, called the Maura Canal. Sometimes called as tawadan. The Turkish race is close to the Mongols. As a result of the conquest of the Arabs, the region became rich in wealth.
Before Islam, Buddhism and Buddhism were emphasized here.
First, the Tahirites laid the foundation for a semi-independent government. It was abolished by the Safaris and formed a vast independent kingdom. Which the Samanis occupied and occupied the whole of Central Asia. After the Samanis, Ghaznavi and Ghori continued to rule, and then the Seljuqs formed the foundation of a great empire. The monarchy was founded under the patronage of the same wealthy Slovakian, and when the rising star of the Slovaks disappeared.
So the emergence of Genghis Khan as a great empire in the reign of the Khazarism royal empire shook the foundations of this empire. But the last ruler of this empire, Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah, is still the beloved hero of the Central Asian states. His sculptures are painted to keep his memory fresh and his coin is painted on it. Although the book under consideration is based on the circumstances of Jalaluddin Manbakarni.
It also addresses the needs of those interested in the history of the area, hoping that it will be of benefit to teachers and students alike.
Every family that came to power was painted in Iranian colors. They all developed the Persian language.
The Persian language was associated with the Roman court of Adam Rudy. Mahmud’s court had eminent poets like Ferdowsi, Farkhi, who in the Seljuq period, Anasari like Gotha.
The Khurrism kings had Rashiduddin and Wahwat. The Persian language was revived in this period and is still considered throughout Central Asia and Chinese Turkestan.
Turkish rulers used to be safe and pen, there was a time when the whole world was ruled by the Turks in Islam. Including Mamluks from Egypt who were actually Turks. Most of the rulers of the subcontinent were also Turks, and they all belonged to Central Asia.
The main raid on the building of our universe is that of Central Asia, almost everywhere you look, you will see similar buildings. Their artisans were abandoned, even the designers of both the minaret Pakistan and Faisal Mosque in Pakistan were seen with great respect.
The Khurrism kings founded a great empire, but unfortunately the locusts of Genghis Khan could not withstand the army.
But at that time, Sultan Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah, from Central Asia to Baghdad, lay in the nose of the Mongols and the deeds of this brave man will be remembered for the rest of the world. The book is also based on the introduction of Central Asia and the achievements of Jalaluddin. It is hoped that his study will help to read the rise and fall of different families in Central Asia, and our religious culture is influenced by Central Asia.
۔ Central Asia is a hero whose example is not found throughout Islamic history. He decided to fight in front of the Mughals at this time. When the whole world was in a state of disarray over Islam, he fought for 20 years against rulers other than the Mughals and successfully kissed his footsteps. He remains an exemplary hero for the people of Uzbekistan today.
Several monuments have been erected and coins have been erected on them.
When it came to Genghis Khan, he put the horse from the top of the mountain into the Indus and jumped to the other side. A man like Genghis Khan, surprisingly, put a finger in his mouth and sent his sons to his He spoke of bravery and courage as a model.
The history of Central Asia begins with the invasion of Muslims, and as soon as they saw the bastion of Buddhism, Islam followed.
Compared to the Abbasid regime, the Samanis formed the first independent government in Central Asia before the Tahiri and then the Sogharis started it, but it was local small-scale governments. After that the Ghaznavids laid the foundation of a great empire, and after that, the Salajuqi and the Khwarizm Shahi were also their grandchildren. Since all these governments were at peace with each other, their circumstances were also recorded so that the entire outline of Central Asia would be revealed to the readers.
After that, the rise of Genghis Khan and the struggle of Khwarizm Shah is highlighted so that his achievements can emerge. hope that
Jalaluddin Mohammad Alam was a soldier in Islam who fought against the Genghis. When the Genghis blocked him all the way, he boldly jumped from the rock in the Indus and jumped along with a horse and crossed the river while watching.
After this he spent a long time in Kohistan salt and also fought wars with Qiyyah and Yulduz, and they eventually ended.Central Asia
In our area, the Sultan married the daughter of Rai Shankar Khokhar and made Khokhar a supporter. As long as the Sultan, two forts residing in Kohistan salt are known by him, one is Imama near Qala Samar Kand and the other is Talaja in Khushab district.
Khwarizm Shah Alam was considered the most powerful in Islam but his father’s betrayal to the Genghis did not bring him any rest and he continued to chew the country and the Mongols until he learned them. Didn’t breathe. They always failed to defeat the Sultan.
The true history of Central Asia begins with the conversion of the Turks to Islam, and is attributed to the Turkish spiritual leader Hazrat Ahmad Yasvi.
So far the name is taken with great respect.
After the Turks converted to Islam, they established great empires. The first Arab-dominated kingdom was Tahria, then Safaria was established, and then the Samanis stained a great empire and called it capital. After them came to Ghaznavi, they also came to Ghori after the fall of the Central Asian government and came to Seljuqi after their fall, and then a royal government of Khwarism was established which was given by the Seljuqs.
This book will be a treasure trove of information for interested gentlemen from Central Asia and will be useful for students and teachers alike.
Geographical conditions of Central Asia
Central Asia or Turkey has the same idea. Sometimes Azerbaijan is also included. Azerbaijan is included in Central Asia but not in Turkey. Historically these areas were called Turkestan, which included Chinese Turkestan, Russian Turkistan and some areas of Afghanistan.
As if Siberia to the north and Iran to the south to Afghanistan and the great chain of mountains begins at Kopat Dagh in the south-west and ends on the mountain ranges of Pamir and Tian Shan in the east, if a wide and wide field extends west and north. Most of the eastern and southern regions are mountainous, and this series separates Central Asia from the rest of the continent.
Central Asia This vast area can be divided geographically into four different types of areas and therefore the climate is different.
(1) Spiti field comprising northern Kazakhstan.
(2) a semi-desert area that covers the rest of Kazakhstan.
(3) the desert area to the south which extends to the Iranian border in the west and to the China border in the east.
(4) the mountainous region of Pamir and Tian Shan.
The total area of the area is 4 million kilometers and it was the sixth part of the total area of the Soviet Union, while the Soviet Union was the sixth part of the whole world.
The population of the entire region is about four million, making it the ninth part of the total population of Russia. There are currently five Soviet-era Soviet republics, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
In the former Soviet Union it was difficult but impossible to find the exact number of Muslims. Russia’s census papers had no religion, emphasizing race and language rather than religion. Thus, instead of religion, people were informed about their ethnicity and language in the census. Fortunately the nations and linguistic groups in Russia are clearly divided in terms of religion.
That is, every nationality and every lingua franca is followed by the same religion. Thus, if Russians are Ukrainian Christians, then Turks, Iranians and Caucasians are Muslims. The following are the linguistic groups that are all Muslims and have been Muslims for centuries.
(1) Uzbek (2) Tatar (3) Kazakh (4) Azerbaijan (5) Turkmen (6) Kyrgyz (7) Bashkiru (8) Karakalpak (9) Rashkuq (10) Uyghur (11) Lizard (14) Balkar (14) 13) Noghai (14) Tajik (15) Aussie (16) Kurdish (17) Iranian (18) Taba (19) Baloch Caucasian (20) Chechen (21) Kabardi (22) English (23) Adyghe (24) (25) Abkhazie (26) Abaza (27) Awar (28) Laz (29) Durgan (30) Lak (31) Tabasai (32) Agal (33) Rutole (34) Tussakhur (35) Arabs (36) Aunts (37) ) Tajik.
Note. These tribes are not confined to a single state, but are spread over different states, but are largely settled in the state of their name.
People of many races and nationalities are settled in Central Asia, according to data published by Soviet Russia. More than 100 ethnicities are inhabited. The number of Russians in the cities is very high, such as the proportion of Uzbeks in Uzbekistan, 64.7 percent Russian 12.5 percent Tatar 4.8 percent Kazakhs 4.6 percent Tajik 3.8 percent. Source irrigation Central Asia
In Central Asia, agriculture is dependent on river water or rainfall. Canals like Pakistan have been extracted from rivers. The Jihee River (Amu) and Christ (Sierra) are two famous rivers in Central Asia. Apart from these there are many small rivers. Some of these names are (1) Churchick (2) Qur (3) Narin (4) Sokh (5) Esfaara (6) Kashaqa (7) Angaran (8) Pass (9) Sarkar and (10) and Jihais, and Christians, from the mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, start flowing into Uzbekistan
The Amu River is the largest river in Central Asia. The Sierra River comes in second. The Sierra Uzbekistan and its adjoining Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan play a vital role in economic life. Forests are also set up along the rivers, after which the lake falls into the Aral. These rivers are worth sailing. Some of these rivers are drained. Some are also sailing. The names of the major canals are (1) Grand Fergana (2) North Fergana (3) South Fergana and Tashkent canal.
The length of the canal system is 87000 km.
Electricity and gas
More than 400 power plants have been built on these rivers and canals. The total power generation is 30000 million kWh. Other countries are also provided. Similarly, large gas reserves were discovered. Electricity and gas are more than domestic. Pakistan is also keen to win.
The situation in Afghanistan can only take place if the situation is right.
industry and Commerce
Currently there are several heavy industry factories set up in Central Asia. But it is estimated that Uzbekistan accounts for sixty percent of the industrial output of the Central Asian states. For example cars and trailers, communication machinery factories, artificial yarn factories, textile factories, artificial fertilizer factories, pharmaceutical factories, house building factories, etc.
In these areas, high-quality raw ferrous metals and successful metals are found in abundance, including copper, zinc, lead, sulfur, gold, silver, various metals, coal, oil, and gas.
Fruits are most common in this area. There are only 100 varieties of grapes. 300 types of apples are born 240 types of peaches are produced.
Thus, cold and summer are often born. Apart from this, cotton and wheat are produced quite a lot, but in terms of cotton, Uzbekistan has a special place in the world.
The herdsman has been a Turkish profession for centuries, and sheep of the Karakali breed are also raised here. In addition, horses and camels are also frequently raised.
Sixty percent of the former Soviet Union’s silk was produced in Central Asia.
Depending on the silk fabric factory based in Samarkand. So nature has made great contributions to these areas. Everything is donated to the pharaohs. Now it is up to them to give thanks for this blessing and bring back their greatness.
Bukhara Samarkand, Andujan, Dushanbe, Almata, Bishkek, Tashkent, Baku and more.
The Ancient History of Central Asia
Asia and some other countries have hidden their history in myths and tales. This is the case with the history of Central Asia. This story is described for the first settlers. This may be true to some extent. Large lakes were built in the lower reaches of ancient times. The snow from the mountains adjoining Samarkand would form rivers and fill these lakes with water.
These lakes became a haven for fishermen and hunters due to the abundance of poultry and fish. Predators coming from far-flung Turkestan slowly began to settle around them. Due to this, the villages of Tarkarrod, Brani, Ivani and Noor were inhabited.
The rise and fall of English
The people here chose a man named Abrizi to run the government.
But this person started to annoy people with the intoxication of power, which forced some to migrate and settled there, a new population called Jumquit. Jamaquet means a good city. Here he asked for help from a Turkish prince to fight against the English. The prince’s name was Shakshwar and his father’s name was Karajeevan. Armed with an army of miscreants, they reached the aid of the oppressed.
Abrezi was arrested and locked in a sack full of nail thorns and placed on the ground and pressed under the hoods of horses. The rebel was made the new king, and the people called the rebels ruled for thirty years. His successor, Mac Jebat, made the cities of Ramtin and Farkhash. He married Shah Chin’s daughter. The bride also brought the idol in dowry, probably dating to Buddhism. At the beginning of the Islamic era, there was a king named Bansidon.
He had repaired the fort of Afrasiab. For some, the fort was built by Siwas. Siyash was the boy of the Caucasus who fled Iran and came to Central Asia.
Afrasiab respected him and gave his daughter to him. Siyash thought of a horse, so that the city of Bukhara was founded. After Bensidon, his son Tegashdi became king. But the government business was run by his mother.
It was at this time that the Arab Mujahideen entered the area. Every day after sunrise, the Queen rode on a horse and left the fort. Then he would come to the door of Roghistan and sit here in the palace of officers in the palace. The court would. At that time, two hundred young men wore golden bandages to protect it with swords. Similarly, people from every tribe were invited to do this work year-round.
After the queen became king, she converted to Islam and helped the Arabs in the area and fought against the abandonment of Arabs by the Arabs. He named his boy Kitabah after the conqueror Turkistan. He was assassinated in 782, his boy Nainth was enthroned, but he followed the false prophet’s constitution, which led to the murder of Farkhanas. The last prince of this family was Abu Ishaq.
In view of his weakness, he took pension in return for 20,000 annual dirhams to his feudal Ismail Samani. He died in 914. He was the last prince of this family. Ishmael received twenty thousand dirhams. On this, Ishmael proposed the money as a pension and Isaac accepted it.
The original inhabitants
The ethnicity of the Iranian people has a great deal to do with the Tajik, Ghalcha, Wakhani, Jamshedi, and Parsian peoples, and it can be argued that the civilized population of Mawlanar has always consisted of Iranians.Central Asia
According to Khayani Kof, the purest breed is Tajik.
The oldest was the territory that stretches from Ahi-Keith to Bukhara on the right border of Fergana. It is the most fertile region with numerous natural rivers. The names of its mountains, fountains and rivers, as well as its cities, districts and villages, are all of the Old Persian language, and there is no doubt that the names of Khotan, Tarkhan, and other places give the name of the ancient Iranian population. Are.
The statements of the Najafist historians indicate that the silk goods convoys of Bukhara and Shadiya traders passed through the Sassanid Empire and traveled to the East Roman Empire. It is true that there are no monuments like the Parsis Paul and Sousa in this area, nor have any books been found that can convey clear evidence of the ancient civilization of Central Asia.
Turkish or Turkish Central Asia
These boxes were Gadhriya and they were also called Ghazia grain.
They were deserters of Turkish descent. He had imprisoned Sultan Sanjer near present-day Khoi. According to one estimate, 700 BC. I crossed the Jihoon, which was a distance between Iran and Taran. The Turks were high-ranking soldiers wherever they went, they established their own governments. Except for almost half of the subcontinent, all Muslim rulers were Turkish. Tarkhans are also mentioned, their government was in Samarkand, Bekand and Fakand, but the circumstances of the Turks of Central Asia before Islam are little known.
Because Muslims were the first to establish historiography in Central Asia.
The religion of the Turanians was Buddhism and the Iranians were fanatical. The Taurani Buddhists were supportive of the religion they had acquired from the beginning. The Iranians, on the other hand, naturally supported their national religion of fanaticism.
The Iranian name Jeehan Keith was given the name of Bukhara by the Turks, which still means Buddhist monastery or temple in Mongolian. Similarly, the river Amu is also called Turkey. Amu means river. Similarly, Khulj is the name of the sword in Turkey. Balkh is also an old Turkish word which means city. The Mongolian capital was called Qian Balekhi, the city of Qian.
The country of Maur-ul-Nohar was very ancient and was home to people of pure Iranian descent. This proves to be one of the oldest monuments in Iran, “Wendyar.” It lists the names of sixteen ancient sites. (1) The first chapter is about creation (2) Shadiya or ancient Soghia (3) Maruia ancient Mauro (4) Bactria ancient Muzai (5) Nishadkadim Nassau (6) Herat antique Haru (7) Fergana ancient and old and so on. The Shah Nawaz woman is also an Iranian name. The Zarfashan river is also an Iranian name.
Their territories were called Iran and Taran. The Iranians were agriculturalists and traders, while the Turanians were just nomadic shepherds. Further evidence is confirmed by the Buddhist tourists Fahian and Heaven Tsang that the condition of Buddhism was good in the area at the time of the occupation of the Muslims. They found a large gold idol on Wednesday with two precious diamonds in their eyes.
Arab invasion and accepted Islam
Arab Mujahideen reached Western Caliphate in Rashid’s time. They made their way to Alexander to conquer Central Asia. According to 46 AH, in 666, Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan sent his brave General Rabiya Ibn al-Harith from Iraq to Khorasan. Rabia reached Balkh, overriding every competitor. Balkh has always been the southern gateway to the region.
After this, Rabiya reached the banks of the river, continuing the conquest. Muslims got rich wealth from here In 50 AH (670 AD), when the governor of Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan passed away, Mu’awiyah sent his son, Obaidullah, to Central Asia.
Obaidullah bin Ziyad first attacked a rich city like Bekand.
Which was the capital and trade center of Sughd Province.
From here a large amount of wealth and four thousand prisoners were taken to Bukhara. Bukhara was then ruled by a woman named Qiq. The Queen has agreed to pay one million dinars annually to save the country from destruction. But later on the incentive of concession, the peace was dissolved and a confrontation with the army of one hundred and twenty thousand came out but the reconciliation led to a request for reconciliation, which was approved and the Muslims without bloodshed. Has entered Bukhara.
The victory was attributed to Saeed ibn Usman, who was appointed governor of Khorasan after Obaidullah bin Ziyad, and soon afterwards the Islamic Lashkar occupied Samarkand and Tordaz. After Saeed appointed Muslim bin Ziyad Khurasan, he imposed on Malibu the conquest of Turkestan, who by repeated attacks overwhelmed the enemy, and the Mujahideen got so much wealth that ten thousand in each soldier’s part. Please come.
The victories of Qutbah bin Muslim and Central Asia
Distressed by Malibu Most of the Central Asian peoples accepted to be Muslims. After Malibal’s death, his son Yazid succeeded him. On reaching the pilgrimage, he sent Qutbah bin Muslim, an Egyptian chief, as governor of Khorasan.
Qutbah was a brave and experienced general. He ordered the Hajjaj to conquer Ma’ur-ul-Nahr in 86 AH (704 AD). Its destiny was to conquer not only Central Asia, but to write Islamic civilizations and traditions in the hearts of those who replaced Buddhism and fire. Today, centuries later, people in Central Asia are similarly converted to Islam.
The purpose of Qatabah was not only to justify victories, but also to publish Islam.
Therefore, he used to have the Quran and sermons with him, which would warm the hearts of the Mujahideen with their recitation and sermons.
Turkestan was then divided into smaller countries that were interconnected for days. The Quetta took advantage of these conditions and took control of all. When the Qutbah crossed the Jijans, the ruler of the Soghians came forward with gifts and accepted obedience. The rulers of Shuman and Kafian also accepted obedience to the promise of tribute.
Subsequently, his nephews Nasr and Saleh conquered Kashan and Fergana.
Bukhara had been conquered three times before by the Muslims, but there was a revolt every time. When the pilgrims heard of this failure, they called for a map of Bukhara and directed that it be mounted from the sides.
According to these instructions, the Quetba besieged the city. An army of Turks and Sogdians also came to the aid of the Bukhara. On seeing this, the people of Bukhara came to the field, so on one side the army of the Bukhara and on the other side the Turks and the Sogdian army gathered and the Muslims came in between. A bloody battle broke out and a group of the Islamic army retreated. Arab women fled the Muslims and beat their horses and pushed them back to the battlefield.Central Asia
Finally the Muslims took over and were attacked with such force that the feet of the Ahl al-Bukhara were shaken and for the fourth time the Ahl al-Bukhara repented and sincerely accepted Islam that Bukhara religion became the center of Islam and here the great Imam Bukhari-like scholars of the religion. Born and still today people are proud to be called Bukhari. When the pilgrims found out that the Muslim army was surrounded by the enemy, he would pray in the mosques for the security of Qatabah.
The conquest of Verdun
Verdun was famous for artillery. The first thing that the Arabs got as rich was their weapons. Even though numerous arms were sold by Bekand to the soldiers, the weapons here were so demanding that a spear sold at a hundred and seventy-two dirhams and super much more expensive. Ten years later, the Qatayba turned their attention to Verdun, but Turkish princes were also awaiting the expected attack.
They allied themselves with the Allied forces on the way. The ruler of Ferghana also met them. Khaqian Chen’s nephew also came from the east and joined them
It used to be that the Turks were very much aware of the danger and were determined to unite and kill the Arabs. The Mujahideen were not lacking in the Arabs because the Bani Tamim, Bakr and Abdul-Qais tribes represented in these markers were twenty-one thousand, but the Arabs never considered the number to be excessive, but always sacrificed their lives on Islam. Wishing Fighting and succeeding, regardless of John, the Cubans did not allow their army’s morale to diminish even when they found themselves surrounded. He again exhorted all the tribes. “My children, get up and trouble the Turks. Wakir bin Abul Asad, the leader of the Tamim tribe, chose a fighter named Kazim to attack. In the first attack of the Muslims the enemy’s feet were shaken.
Central Asia Legion on China
Since the Chinese army also came to fight against the Muslims, it was considered necessary for revenge by the Qatabas, so the Muslims reached Kashgar after conquering victory. From here, a delegation was sent to Khaqan China under the leadership of Habra bin Klabi. The delegation told Khaqan that our chief had sworn that he would not return until he received the Chinese land under his feet and paid tribute.
Khaqan tried to intimidate at first, but when all efforts were abandoned, he accepted the award and reconciled.
When the sum of the tribute was placed in front of the Quetta, he said that I swore two things, one to receive the tribute and the other to trample the land. The first condition is met The second condition must be attacked to fulfill the second condition. Since the parties wanted to avoid bloodshed, it was decided that a sack full of Chinese soil should be brought to Qatabah, which they did so by trampling on their oath.
With the focus of management on the end of these campaigns, Islam gradually spread throughout Turkey and its cities became the center of Islamic studies.
According to modern research, three thousand years ago the people of Central Asia were very civilized. In Taran, Afrasiab first laid the foundation of the state and united Iran and Taran by defeating the last ruler of the Iranian diaspora family Girshasp.
Balkh and Bukhara are reported to have settled there. Tash Kyrgyzstan, a town in Pamir, is still called Afrasiab. In the battle with the Iranians, Sohrab is killed by Rustam. Zarzatz was killed by the same king who became king of Arjasop Turan after Arsabia. There was also a town called Afrasiab near the present Samarkand, where today the famous scholar of Shah Zind is the cemetery.
Today, only the ruins on the hill that are reminiscent of the city of Afrasiab, the ruins on the hill are fifty feet deep, and each layer offers a different era, for historians and archaeologists. Many treasures are hidden. The history of Afrasiab is centuries old. He made Koryush Afsiab. See the greatness of Alexander the Great’s armies and the great ruler like Timor.
When Yamor chose it as its capital, the city reappeared with a new climate, and in just twenty-two years the city had become the capital of a vast Asian empire. In 2007, Raqqam saw the city as a roof over the ruins of Afrasiab and was protected.
After Timor, his grandson Al Baig continued the construction.
Al Beg was an enlightened astrologer as well as a hater. Due to the madrassas often built during the Al Bagh era, Samarkand became Central Asia’s largest cultural and educational center. Archaeologists have recently discovered a sanctuary in Samarkand. This is a three-storeyed building with seven minarets. In this Benazir country center, highly intelligent people worked under the supervision of Al Beg. After Al-Baal, Al-Beg was the man who made the stars. The first list was created and the scientific value of this list has not diminished to this day.
However, at the time it was developed, ivory did not have binoculars and other advanced equipment. Archaeologists have also discovered an enormous scale at the site where the reservoir measures angled distances that were mounted on a rock. There is also an algae sculpture installed in the same place so that it is reminiscent. Central Asia
Bukhara and Samar Kund have been rivals to each other since the time of the Erasmys, according to tradition.
Bukhara was the capital of a vast empire in the ancient times. Bukhara is still called the city of museums while Samarkand has become a modern city. Although Bukhara does not have many artifacts of architecture such as Bibi Khanam and Shah Zindav, the city itself is a great cultural monument. Minar Kalyan has been in the city center for over 800 years. It was built for Azaan.
Timor named the nearby villages of Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus to symbolize the greatness of Samarkand. Compared to the capital of Timor, great cities were no more than ordinary villages. History testifies that Samarkand’s largest garden, ‘Bagh Jahan’, was so vast that an architect’s horse wandered into the garden and found it after a month.
Muslims entered Central Asia in the eighth century and shortly afterwards they invaded the whole region. The Arabs raised the flag of Islam all over Central Asia. As a result, the dispersed local population united on a common ideology. Along with religion, the Arabic language also flourished, which became the language of discipline and knowledge. The southern part of Kazakhstan was more affected by the conquest of the Arabs. Central Asia
The Turkish tribes were free on the Spiti grounds.
After Qutbah bin Muslim, Muslims in Central Asia stopped following the foundation of the first mosque in Samarkand, which was influenced by Turkish Islamic teachings and the role of Muslims, except for Buddhism and militancy. gone. Dagestan accepted the most influence By the time of Hisham the whole of Dagestan had become Muslim and in the coming centuries the colors of the Arabs became such that the Arabic language and the Arab civilization became their language and civilization. Central Asia
After West Turkistan, Islam reached East Turkestan Xinjiang, conquered Kashgar in 96 AH and reached Siberia in the north. This is about the time when the Russian state was not yet born, from Siberia to Central Asia. Islam became a powerful cultural and political force. As the caliphate’s grip weakened, freedom movements emerged in Central Asia.
The first independent government established in Central Asia was the Samani dynasty, which reunited Iran and Central Asia. In the Samani state, Afghanistan included all areas of Iran, Maharnahar, and Khwarizm. This state played a major role in the ethnic cultural history of the region. During this period the Persian language gained prominence.
A great poet like Rudd adorned the courtyard.
Bukhara had such a great fortune that people feel proud to write Bukhari with their names.
The history of Central Asia dates back to the same ancient family.
The following is the period of the Islamic regime before the Samanis.
These five current Central Asian republics have historically been known as Turkestan.
Later, Turkey also divided into three parts. Named after… Turkistan (2) Chinese Turkestan and (3) Afghan Turkistan. Afghan Turkestan It was ever under the Uzbek government of Bukhara. It now consists of Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan. The name of the Afghan Turkestan is now abandoned. The people here are Uzbeks and speak Persian. The area has copper, lead, iron, gold mines.
Gas was also discovered which was supplied to Russia.
The Chinese Turkestan was once annexed to the Russian Turks and was ruled by Muslims, but later occupied China by the Russians. Turkey was made a province of China and renamed Xinjiang, the new province. The population here is made up of Turks. Kashgar, Khotan, Urumqi are famous cities. Now the highway has merged with Pakistan through silk. East Turkestan and western Turkestan are part of the Arz Tانran, whose boundary walls extend from China to the Walga River. The Chinese had built a wall wall to protect the country from these Turks. There have been uprisings here too. Has been given internal autonomy since 1953. But its implementation is similar to that of Russia. Central Asia
Russia has liberated West Turkistan to some extent, may God allow this Chinese Turkestan to become free again and deal with its Muslim brothers.
Since the subject of our book is Uzbekistan, the situation in West Turkistan is being written in detail. Only a brief introduction of the remaining two was necessary. The Russians placed Turkey under a Russian governor general at the beginning of the postwar era.
But they could not tolerate this political unity of Turkey’s vast country and ended this unity and divided Turkey into five parts and gave them the name of sovereign democracy.
There was no such government before the Shakti government. Prior to the revolution, there were separate governments in the name of Bukhara, Khiva and Khokhand. All these cities are currently part of the Republic of Uzbekistan. To eliminate the unity of Turkestan government, the Shakti government made it a part of the Soviet government by designating new territories, demarcating these areas, keeping in mind the language, race and economic issues. The reason for this was that it was decided by the locals themselves. However,
this Buddhist argument in Russia is based on white lies as it invaded Afghanistan and that Russian troops have been there at the invitation of the Afghans, the states with which we belong. (1) Kazakhstan (2) Uzbekistan (3) Kyrgyzstan (4) Turkmenistan (5) Tajikistan (6) Azerbaijan (but this is in the European part instead of Central Asia.) Azerbaijan was not part of Turkey but part of Iran. Muslims struggled in several places against the dictatorial rule in Central Asia. From 1917 until 1926, the Bamaschi movement continued its resistance. The movement included Muslims of every class, the Russians calling them Bamaschi.
The Basmachi movement was organized on the basis of Pan-Turkeyism and Pan-Islamism. The Russians called it the evil of Britain but it was all propaganda no movement could last long. Anwar Pasha, who was the Turkish Minister of War. Arrived in Bukhara in 1921 and announced that he would unite all Muslims and form a government. By 1922 they had liberated a very large area of the “Bukhara People’s Republic”.Central Asia
But in the same jihad, Anwar Pasha was martyred. He was defeated by 20000 soldiers under him. After that, Ibrahim Beg fought against his associates in Bukhara until 1926 and Junaid Khan with his own forces in Khwarism until 1924. This movement continued until 1930. But if it was no longer a driver, how long would it last? Finally ended after 13 years. In the time of the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan, the Russians strengthened the veil around Central Asia and at the same time punished Afghanistan against Pakistan, because India and Russia had the same advantage
Soviet Russia feared that the independence of Pakistan’s movement would have an impact on these Central Asian states as well, and then people could demand separation in the name of religion. Russia made the world the ruler of Afghanistan, Vietnam was swept away by the name of Russia, but here Russia has to suffer. Central Asian Muslim troops refuse to fight against Afghans Some are fighting separately against Russia.
This upset Russia and then millions of rubles were being spent daily on the long war that shook Russia’s economic system. Finally, in the time of Gorba Chof, Muslims of Central Asia were liberated. Now it is the duty of the Muslims to appreciate this blessing and to avoid getting involved in disputes as they have already done so much harm.
On December 21, 1991, an agreement was signed in the Kazakh capital of Alma Ata, in which Muslim states also approved the new Commonwealth, but the Baltic states resigned on full independence.
Maintain complete separation and independence. One of the reasons is that moral support from all over Europe was available to them. Radio Free Europe has been constantly propagating in their favor for the last 40 years. Thus, the new Commonwealth comprises eleven instead of 15 states: Estonia, Latvia, Moldavia, Lithuania did not join. Here are the names of those participating in the Commonwealth.
Who did not join the Commonwealth.
In addition there are 13 (Autonomous) replicas. They also include Regison (Oblast) and National Okrug (districts). They also include most Muslim areas 0. For example Tatarias, Dagestan, Chechnya, Angus, Ossetia, etc.
The appearance of sovereigns
The idea of the Iranians forming their own government was born in the beginning of the Abbasid regime, and because of the disorder in the Abbasid system, many people succeeded in establishing independent sovereign states in the name of their families. Among them are Bannu Tahir Safar and Bannu Saman. These governments were apparently subordinated to the Caliph Baghdad, but in reality were sovereign.
Tahir’s military services:
Tahir bin Hussein was a slave of Mamun. When Amin launched an army against Mamun in 809, Mammon sent Tahir as his commander to fight General Ali ibn Isa. Tahir encamped at Ray’s place and set up spies in the vicinity so that the movement and progress of the Imperial Lashkar would be known.
Ali was so desperate in his power that he did not bring Tahir in jeopardy and said that letting Lashkar-e-Salari be made a slave. As soon as we compete, he will run back and run. If you stay on the battlefield for a while, I will do it first.
The other military chiefs tried to explain that at least spies should be appointed to protect themselves and dig a trench around the army, but Ali did not listen and responded that such arrangements were not made for a seasoned veteran. For a slave.
Tahir not only defeated the Baghdadi army by confronting Ali’s army of fifty thousand with a short army of four thousand but Ali also got an arrow that ended there. His army accepted obedience. Ali’s head was sent to Mamun in Tahir. Mamun was very happy with this victory and sent more troops to help Tahir. Defeat of Second Baghdadi Army:
When Fazl ibn Rabi heard of Ali’s defeat, he became very scared and sent Abdurrahman ibn Jabla with twenty thousand troops to fight Tahir.
Tahir twice defeated him near Hamadan and forgave him and took control of the entire territory of Iraq and Azam. Tahir’s Third Victory: After Abdurrahman, Tahir had to compete with two generals Ahmad Bin Aurz and Abdullah bin Hameed. But instead of fighting, Tahir spread the rumor through his spies that you are here to pay salaries in Baghdad.
The soldier insisted on his return, Nachar Ahmed and Abdullah went back without fighting
When Tahir turned to Ahwaz, Muhammad bin Yazid confronted him but was killed. With these victories, Tahir’s demeanor increased so much that the chiefs and officials ran away as soon as they heard his name. So when Hakim Wassat heard about Tahir’s arrival, he fled the city.
After this, Amin’s allegiance to the officials of Kufa, Basra and Mosul was canceled, taking the written pledge of Mamun. With this allegiance, the whole of Iraq was practically under Mamun’s control. Victory Baghdad: After the conquest of Kufa, Basra and Mosul, Tahir advanced towards Madinah and encamped on the banks of the Canal Sarsar near Baghdad in his settlement. Amin sent a number of troops against it.
But Tahir defeated them all. Tahir merged with Amini Sardar Hussain bin Ali. Hussain detained 811 Amin in accordance with Rajab 196 AH but the Ahlul city killed Hussein and freed Amin.
Tahir decided to conquer Baghdad at all costs. So he ordered the siege on one side and the other on the other, and began to throw stones at them.
The people of the city were fed up and came to Tahir refuge. Even Kotwal got Tahir.
Seeing this situation, Amin wanted to flee the country towards Syria, but Tahir did not allow his scheme to be fulfilled, forcing him to seek refuge. Tahir since Ajami was born He did not like to entrust himself to it. Priority is given to every solution.
Because he was an Arabian tribe. Each community gladly accepted the asylum application and assured that they would protect their lives at all costs. Tahir got very nervous when he heard about it. He knew that if Amin had gone to the shelter of every community. So the victory of Baghdad will be attributed to that. Therefore, soldiers were secretly deployed around Amin’s palace to kill him as they approached every summons.
Amin became aware of this watch. So he wanted to run the boat. As he boarded the boat, Tahir’s men threw rocks at him and drowned the boat. But the sailors courageously saved Amin somehow, but Tahir’s soldiers captured him and imprisoned him and killed him at night. According to Muharram 198 AH, on Friday 813 AD, Tahir entered the mosque and read the sermon on the name of Mamun and gave general order to the city.
Army rebellion against Tahir:Central Asia
After the conquest of Baghdad, Mamnoon forces demanded Tahir pay. But he had no wealth or treasure, so he kept avoiding promises but how long? In the end the army rebelled against him, except for a few chiefs with him. Tahir left Baghdad and fled. But a few days later the rebels became conscious of themselves and their chiefs appeared to Tahir and apologized.
Tahir’s defeat: Nasr bin Raz, a leader of Aleppo on the assassination of Amin, raised the question of Arabic and Ajami,
raising the knowledge of the revolt and occupying many of the surrounding areas. Fazl ibn Sohal was already in the same plot to send Tahir away from Baghdad if any opportunity arose. So that he can take self-defense. Immediately Mammon sent Tahir’s decree that you were appointed as the governor of Syria, Mosul and the island.
So leave Baghdad and go straight to it and exploit Nasr. The Tahir entrusted to Hassan bin Sohal, the brother of the Emirate of Baghdad, became a major defeat for this brutal act. The cloud came against Nasr but was defeated. Nasr had been a rebel for eleven years. Tahir’s son, Abdullah, succeeded him at Sarkobi, which forced him to reconcile after five years of continuous battles.
At first he did not accept the condition of appearing in the court of the caliphate, but he later agreed and appeared before Mamnoon in 210 AH. Who closed his eyes.
Maimon’s admission to Baghdad:
When Mamnoon got news of the chaos in Baghdad, Fazl bin Sohal was killed on the way to Sargods on the way to Baghdad. After spending a few days in Taos and reading the Fateha at the father’s shrine, when Nahrwan arrived, Tahir bin Hussein was received here. The Caliph donated to the Kotwali of the island of Baghdad and a grand opening in exchange for former services.
Establishment of wealth Tahiriya (822 to 872 AD)
Establishment of Daulat Tahiria:
Mamun was a big fan of Tahir’s impeccable service and well-wishes, and it was possible that the masjid ministries could have been handed over to him, but the murder of his brother Amin always kept in his heart and whenever Tahir went in front of him, he would have his own The deceased brother was remembered and his face changed color.
Tahir also became aware of the internal affairs of the Caliph. So it seemed appropriate to go far beyond the opposition. Therefore, Prime Minister Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid requested that he be sent to the United Arab Emirates outside Baghdad.
Hassan coincidentally came to Khorasan on the same day that a chief named Abdul Rahman was gathering troops to fight the foreigners.
Mamun feared that this gathering would not bring any temptation. So, wishing to appoint a powerful man to rule there, Ahmad ibn Abi Khalid heard of this and appointed Tahir as Khurasan. Central Asia Tahir became the ruler of Khorasan. Used to send only the annual tribute to the caliph and take the name of the caliph in the sermon. He was independent in all other matters.
Thus, the foundation of the Tahiriya government was established in Khorasan. It is reported that once Tahir deleted the caliph’s name in the sermon, Mamun’s espionage system was so thorough and organized that it was immediately reported in Baghdad. The Caliph ordered Prime Minister Ahmad Bin Khalid that on his recommendation he was appointed. But the next day, news of his death came and Ahmed survived. After Tahir, his son Abdullah Hakim became Khurasan. He declared Nishapur as a capital, rather than a male,
and extended the boundaries of his empire to India. After that, Tahir-ul-Hakim became Khurasan. This wealth was the last ruler of Tahiriya. He was defeated by Jacob ibn Leath Safari in 972 and captured Khorasan. The establishment of the wealthy Tahrir was the first step in Iran towards anarchy in the great empire of Bani Abbas. The establishment of this wealth gave the brave men the task of instructing the brave soldiers to gain independence from the external government and wherever the opportunity arose. Free and independent states began to be established apart from the Central Asia
Significance in the history of wealth Tahiri:
The government of Al-Tahir was purely Iranian. The rulers of this period paid particular attention to Persian language and literature. So Bukhara and Nishapur became the centers of knowledge and literature. For the first time, poets began to write poetry in Persian in their native language, and the famous poet of this period, Hanzala Bad Ghisi, is the first Persian poet to compose his deity.
Wealth Safariya (867 to 903 AD)
In the era of the Caliph al-Muttul, Saleh ibn Nasr was a person in Sistan who taught the people religious. Teaching was often attended by young people.
Saleh also organized an army of youth. Who defeated the Khawarij who continued to conquer Sistan for days. Jacob bin Leit was also Saleh’s follower. Jacob was a joke to himself, but he abandoned his profession and helped Saleh organize a military party. As a result, he was made general of the Sistani army. After Saleh’s death, Sistani chose Jacob as his wife.
When Jacob stepped foot, he traveled to Herat in 867 and conquered it. Then conquered the areas of Kerman and Persia and ruled a vast empire. Thus the family succeeded in establishing an independent government in Safari.
Although Safaria’s government was established for a short period, it was a purely Iranian government that was completely independent of the Caliph’s government.
Therefore, it was of great value in the hearts of the Iranians. This government was dear to the Iranians for some reason because it was established in Rustom’s homeland of Sistan. The family quietly watched the scene of the invaders of Jacob, the ruler of Tahiriya. His own areas were also taken away. But he still did not do it. So Jacob attacked Khorasan and ended the Tahrir Pact.
Then, on the way to Tabaristan, he defeated Hassan ibn Zaid and ended the Alawiya.
Jacob was now almost halfway to Iran. Dedicated to the intoxication of victories, in 876, he intended to end the domination of the Arabs by taking two hands with the Caliph. As a result, he first sought the Caliph Muttadim’s government in Persia. Not only did the Caliph refuse to surrender it to the Persian government.
The Khorasan government also took it. When Jacob saw the situation worsening, he headed straight to Baghdad. Caliphate’s army fought against the capital. But his defeat did not diminish, and he returned and engaged in providing a new army.
In 879, the Caliph sent his envoy to Jacob to greet him. When this ambassador arrived, Jacob was at that time a fraud.
He was being served food. Which had only one loaf and one onion. In that case, Jacob met with the ambassador of the Caliphate and sent to the Caliph saying that if I were alive, our decision would be a sword. If I am victorious, it will be exactly what I want and if you are victorious, then this piece of onion and bread is for me. You cannot win over a person who is satisfied with such a diet.
But Jacob’s life did not subside as the ambassador approached the caliph.
Jacob Bin Leath’s friend Nawazi was not averse to living a simple and simple life. They knew the secret of his success in Jesus. All he had was open to his friends. He was fond of relieving friends by hurting himself.
Therefore, he had no difficulty in gathering his descendants. He did not forget his childhood friends at the time of his reign and brought them all to the highest point. Even in the case of the king, he appeared in the garb of a modest soldier. Like ordinary soldiers, digging gold and trenches on the ground did not bother him. There was no difference between his tent and a modest soldier’s tent.
He hated luxury and luxury. Istiql-ul-Awwazmi used to take on everything and everything he did. In the end, the sovereignty of a very large part of Iran became subordinate, and the court of Baghdad’s caliphate could not rule on its expulsion.
Amr bin Litas: After the death of Jacob bin Leath, his brother Amr ibn Leath sat on the throne, and he expanded his territory.
Although in Amr ibn Levit, wisdom is more pronounced than that of his brother. But he was inferior to his brother in living this soldierly conduct and simple life. Khalifa Mutmad’s brother Moufiq defeated him once, but he soon recovered his condition and became the loser of the court. In the end, the Caliph persuaded Ismael Samani, the ruler of Mawlanar, to fight Amr ibn Leath
Amr ibn Leath agreed with Ishmael Samani, taking seventy thousand riders and crossing the Jihadi River. Ishmael Samani came in with only 20,000 riders. In the course of the war, Amr ibn Leath’s horse, against the plans of his rider, took him to the army of Ishmael Samani, and was easily captured there.
Ismail Samani arrested Amr and sent him to Baghdad, and thus the greatness and greatness of wealth Safariya was almost eliminated.
The biggest difference between Jacob and Amr was that Jacob was a savior and a soldier who roasted dry bread, and Amr was a king of luxury and wealth. It would not be interesting to copy a joke here.
On the day Amr was arrested, his cook said in the morning that 300 camels were insufficient to carry kitchen utensils, so some more camels should be given for carrying. Central Asia
That same evening, when Amr bin Ladis was arrested. He complained of hunger with his cook who was in the prison with him. The cook put a little porridge in the pot and put water on the stove to cook. Because there was nothing else. When the cook took off the hand stove and turned away from the needle, a dog came in and lifted the handi.
When Amr saw the dog carrying a handgun, he gave a voice to his cook and said that in the morning he was complaining that 300 camels were insufficient to carry the kitchen equipment. Now, this dog is carrying all my kitchen.
After Amr ibn Leyat his descendants established their so-called government in a limited area of Sistan Sistan for a few years.
The grandfather of Jacob bin Leit whose name was Khalf. Until the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi, Sistan remained in power. Khalif’s son raised a rebellion against his father. Khalif saw himself as weak compared to his son and killed him deceitfully. The inhabitants of Sistan sent a complaint against Khilafah in the service of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi and wrote that you should save us from the atrocities of Khalif.
When Mahmud ascended and the caliph did not give up the contest, he came to the Sultan’s service and kissed the rakab and, with his beard, joined the feet of the Sultan and said, “O Sultan, forgive me.” Liked the word and declared it its title. Instead of punishing the caliph, he accompanied him to Ghazni, where he died four years later, and after this the wealthy Safaria was eliminated. Central Asia
Persian Knowledge and Literature in the Covenant Safaria:
Persian knowledge and literature developed more in the Safari than in the Tahiriya. One of the reasons is that Jacob, the founder of the covenant Safariya, was born in Sistan. Believed to be the center of Iranian narratives. Jacob was not fluent in Arabic. So the poets started saying its tales in Persian instead of Arabic. Consequently, the poets and writers of this period turned their attention to the Persian language.
Central Asia Samania Empire (874 to 999 AD)
The heir of all goods was a man of high stature. Who used to describe himself as a descendant of Bahram Chubin. The goods were from the Rosa of Balkh. But there were some situations where he was forced to immigrate. Assad bin Abdullah Hakim Khorasan backed down during the Caliph Mahdi period. Goods were the currency of the dish. But Asad bin Abdullah was so grateful that not only did Assad’s regime become a Muslim, but he named one of his sons as Assad.
The goods had four sons. All four were employed by Aaron Al-Rashid. He served very well in promoting the uprisings. It was not surprising that Mamnoon Rashid’s equipment and his children were kind. Central Asia
So Mamun gave the four brothers to Ali, Samarkand, Fergana, Shash and Herat in exchange for their services.
Ahmad was the most successful of these brothers. When his brother Noah died, he incorporated the areas of Samarkand and Kashgar into his government. But after some time, the government entrusted his son with the sign.
When Nasr was enthroned, he gave the reign of Bukhara to his younger brother, Ismail. Within a short time a battle broke out between the two brothers, in which Ishmael conquered and Nasr was captured.
But Ishmael took the task of brotherly compassion and freed Nasr and his government gave it back. Nasser died in 892, when Samarkand’s province became the capital of Ishmael. The Permanent Government of Samania begins with Ismail. When Ismail eliminated the Safari government in 907, the Caliph Baghdad gave Khorasan, Turkestan, and Mawlanar government in exchange for Ismail’s services.
Ishmael made Bukhara an empire. This sovereign ruler was a great admirer of knowledge and grace. Therefore, many historian poet Fakia Bukhara came and Bukhara became the center of knowledge and grace.
Ismail ruled for seven to eight years, and after his death, Abu Nazir Ahmad bin Ismail Samani succeeded his father. The character of Ishmael:
Ishmael, according to his habits, was a very gentle and dependable Aliullah.
Jahangiri was well acquainted with the principle of cosmopolitanism. The concession was happy to him and provided ample evidence of his conduct that he belonged to Iran’s Sharif family. Ahmad ibn Ismail:
He enthroned his loved ones and relatives with his misconduct on the throne. After ruling for six years, his own slaves were killed in 920.
After Ahmad, his son Nasr bin Ahmad Samani sat on the throne at the age of eight. This was exactly the pattern of his father Ishmael. He soon expanded the boundaries of his empire to include Ray, Qom and Isfahan in the empire. He ruled for thirty years. This is the same trader. Whose court was in the land of Elisharod. Considered to be the father of Persian poetry.
Nasr died in 943. Nasr is considered to be the epitome of the Old Testament. After Nasr, his son was enthroned. During his reign, Empire Samania began to decline and he died in 997 AD.
The Fall of Wealth Samania:
After Noah, his son Abdul Malik was enthroned. He appointed his chief of staff to the southern part of his country-occupied Khorasan province.
After reigning for seven years, Chogan died on horseback while playing, and his brother Mansoor succeeded the throne. He married the daughter of Dawood Dilmey and the provinces of Iraq and Persia were added to his empire. His minister was Abu Ali bin Mohammed, who translated the history of Persian into Persian. Mansoor bin Noah ruled for fifteen years. After the death of Mansoor, his son Abu-ul-Qasim Noah Sani was enthroned.
As soon as he was enthroned, his courtiers aroused rebellions and invited Baghra Khan, the leader of the Turkish tribes, to invade Bukhara. Baghra Khan attacked his Bukhara by leaving his headquarters in Kashgar. Noah was defeated and Bukhara Khan occupied Bukhara. But Badra Khan soon disappeared from the country. So Noah again took over Bukhara’s government and the Baghra army returned.
Noah strengthened his empire, and his conspirators, fled to Khorasan, and succeeded in attaining the reign of Fakhrudullah. Central Asia
This was the time when the sabotegun had established a permanent government in Ghazni and the sabotegun died. Noah rewarded the visitors in return for the service he did against Bagra Khan. Addressing Nasiruddin
When Noah learned of the plot of Fakhrudullah Delmi and his superiors, he again sought help from the prosecution. The Sabkatin sent troops under his son Mahmud as a support. The decisive battle took place in Herat. Mahmood Ghaznavi showed great courage. Noah was victorious in this battle. Mahmud was pleased to give Saif al-Dawla’s address and the Khorasan government as a reward to the benefactors.
Noah reigned twenty-two years. But his time was often sparked by fighting disputes and revolts, and the provinces of the country were once again out of control.
After Noah, his son Mansoor Sani sat on the throne. In the time of Mansour, the princes who were harassed according to their father. He also upset and defeated Bukhara by defeating him. Then they recognized him as king and took over the kingdom of Khorasan and gave it to another ruler. But Mahmud escaped the new ruler from Khorasan and captured himself.
In the meantime, the Amirs removed Mansoor from the throne and blinded his brother, Abdul Malik Sani, and together with him, attacked Mahmud, but came back defeated.
After this, Ahl Khan (Ali Sabkatagin), the successor of Hakim Kashgar and Baghra Khan, conquered Khorazm and conquered Bukhara and arrested the last Samanid trader, Abdul Malik, and died in captivity.
Another brother, Abdul Mulk, escaped from Bukhara in disguise and was later killed along with a group of pirates for a few days. In this way, the Samani dynasty and its wealth and government were eliminated. The intellectual and literary activities of the ruling rulers:
Khorasan and Mawlanar were in favor of the Samanis. These people used to emphasize that we are descendants of Bahram Sasani. The author of the Fardossi “Shahnamah” lived in the shadow of the first Samanis, and it is true that in Samarkand, Balkh, Nishapur and Bukhara, there was a real revival of literature and art. The excavations at Erasiab (Old Samarkand) show that Kozgiri was popular in this period. Seagrass utensils resembling pottery and Chinese utensils made by rural artists have been discovered. Central Asia
The art and style of carving the government of the Saudis during the time of the mourners and the potters behaved in a way that looked very different to the Iraqi industry. The surface of the vessel or cushion was prepared for the painter such that the first clay layer was placed on the red pottery. The creek was also white, purple, black and yellow. If the grease that comes out of the coin is cooked by applying it to the bronze, then the painter’s colors are spread.
Upon seeing this, the Kozakers began to paint. There are several samples of this type of kozgari. The saucer in the Louvre is a fine illustration of the simple,
yet sophisticated craft of the time, and it is known that although the Kozhikars of Iraq used to make blue figurines and perfection at the healthy level of the alphabet, Samani Artists of the era, too, used their distinctive style to convey the zeal and perfection of Koza Giri.
Except for the dish, the samples found are not so simple, but the colors are fond. Working with this purple apricot-green, an effort has been made to create a shiny and magical surface effect. The dish mentioned above does not have painters but only the letters in the letter coffees are listed and their color is purple. Other patterns have different types of imagery.
For example, excerpts from the texts that were excavated on the decorative objects of the Nakhl Khurma, birds, antiquities, etc. It seems that when the Samani government collapsed, this art also collapsed.Central Asia
During the Khalifa Abbasi era, the only Persian artist who brought Kozari to Miraj Kamal was the Iranian artist. From the tenth and eleventh centuries, another form of Kozgiri was also practiced in the western regions of Iran.Central Asia
They used to lubricate the red clay holdings and carve the carvings into clay soil. The metal work that was done during the Samanid period was also very advanced. Two silver coins of this period have also been found, which can be traced back to the fine art of this period. There is a close-up job, but the entire nail is depicted in half and somewhere. On the other side are photographs of birds emerging.
Islamic architecture was laid bare during the Samanid era.
So the tomb of the Sami-rich Ismail is very important in Bukhara historically. Because it is the first tomb of its kind. Later, similar tombs were erected in India and other Islamic countries in pursuit of the same art. The tomb was built on a hexagon.
Below it were windows on both sides and a high door in the middle. Despite the simplicity of the decoration in this tomb, the decor and elegance of the decorative elements are evident.
Development of knowledge and literature:
The period is considered to be the first of the Persian period of the Persian period. Because of this family, the revival of Iranian writings is attributed. The kings of Samaria were of great importance to their people and their descendants, which is why they were also the Persian language of their own language. Central Asia
One of the reasons for the development of Persian literature and literature in Khorasan is that the Arabs’ steps to Khorasan were late. Secondly, the Arab government remained here for a very short time. Rudki from whom the scheme of deportation is planned. He is a famous poet of the same era. As wise and thoughtful as Balaami is the minister of the same family. During this family, Persian prose came into being in the government and the poetry reached somewhere.
The wives were wise friends and knowledgeable rulers. The city Bukhara, which was the capital of the woven goods, was the center of greatness, the sovereignty, the amalgamation of intellectuals, the horizon of the stars of literature and art, and the city being the home of universal scholars. Samarkand was the second center of knowledge and skill. The Arab rulers patronized Arabic Persian literature. Modern Persian literature began in the same period as Pardesi began his poetry in this period.
Noah (976-997) invited the city scientist Ibn Sina to his court and dedicated the royal library for its use. Central Asia
Other sovereign governments
Along with the wealthy Samania, there were other governments, one of which is the government of the Tabari. One of the descendants of Hazrat Ali, the founder of this government, was Hassan bin Zayed bin Ismail.
This person was living in Ray in the time of the Caliph al-Mustain (died 253 AH). Here he invited allegiance. The officials and people of Tabaristan were unhappy with the Arab authorities. So he swore allegiance to his hand and recognized him as rich. Finally in 250 AH, he succeeded in establishing his own independent government. At that time, the Caliph of Baghdad was under the control of the Magicians and the Gurgaon area.Central Asia
Hassan ibn Ziyad invaded these areas and conquered the Caliph’s forces and these areas also became part of his empire. Hasan died in 275 AH, and Muhammad bin Zayed (270 AH to 278 AH) took over. Mohammed bin Zayed was killed by Ismail bin Ahmad Samani in 278 AH, and the Gurgaan myths and the Samani kingdom of Tabaristan joined.
All efforts: The period of the All-Zionist
government is 316 AH to 434 AH.
Ali bin Atarovish, a man in the time of the reign of Nasser II, founded the Alawi al-Awiyah in Tabaristan. But a few years later, another man, Mervadiz bin Zadat, seized the territory of Tabaristan, and eventually this man took control of the areas of Isfahan and Hamdan and established an autocratic government of All Sagittarius, which had been in force for more than a hundred years. Lasted for a long time.
This covenant is known for its appreciation of knowledge and grace.
Qaboos bin Vishmagir:
Among the successors of the Marriages is Qaboos ibn Vishmagir (976 to 1011 AH 366 AH to 403 AH). Qabos was a knowledgeable ruler, also a poet himself, and spoke poetry in both Arabic and Persian. This is the ruler who raised such a renowned scholar of Abu Rihan al-Biruni. Abu Rihan attributed his famous autobiography to the ruler of the Qur’an al-Khalifa.
Bo Ali Sena was also associated with his court. After Qaboos, Alexander Bin Qaboos became king, and then his son, Amir Element al-Maqani, sat on the throne. He wrote the famous scholarly book, Qabos. Then his son Gilan Shah sat on the throne. His father wrote Qaboos in 975 AH for the guidance of the same Gilan Shah.
A respected family member of Mawlanahar became known as the All-needy in the name of his hereditary superior.
In the distant past, they received large positions. Even the Mauryalanhar government was entrusted to them. The capital of the All-needy was Chighani. By this name, the pledge of the All-Mighty is also known as the ‘pledge of covenant.
Abu Bakr bin Muzaffar bin Mahataj Chaghni, a member of Al-Muttaq, was made Amir Nasr bin Ahmad Samani’s rich army in Khurasan. Upon his death, his son Abu Ali Ahmed remained in office.
He conquered Gurgaon in 955 AH and Makan bin Kaki Delemi at Ray in the Empire of Samania in the area of Pakar Gurgaon, Tabaristan, Zanjan and Kerman Shah. In 959 AH, Noah Bin Nasser Samani became angry with Abu Ali at something and removed him from the rank of Amir Lashkar. On this Abu Ali rebelled, in which he succeeded, and Emir Noah Bin Nasr had to flee to Samarkand. After that there was a reconciliation and sometimes war with the ruling rulers. Abu Ali died in 970 AH. After that his two sons also ruled for a short time. After that, Abu Ali’s nephew Abu al-Muzzafar Tahir bin Fazl became the ruler of Chaghni. He was a surplus person. After this, Fakhr-ud-Dula Abu Al-Muzzafar Ahmad bin Muhammad sat on the throne. It was also Abu Ali’s nephew. In the glory of Abu al-Muzaffar, Waqi and Farkhi wrote poems. All Boyfriend
The coast of the Pacific coast is called Delim. The family bridegroom was related to Dilm. That is why these people are called Delami. According to Alberoni, his lineage is similar to that of the Behram Gore. The period of family widowhood is 946 AH to 1050 AD. The foundation of this covenant was laid in the hands of Al-Ziyar. Ahmed Bin Boya:
Al-Ziyar awarded the government of Abuja al-Hussein Ali ibn Bawiya for his services to the Karaj government.
Ali also had two brothers. Ahmed was the most famous of them. Together, they expanded their government so much that Persia became a part of their empire in southern Iran. The Caliph Baghdad recognized the government of the three brothers. This only increased their morale. Ahmad turned to Khost in order to expand the empire and conquered it and added it to his empire.
Ahmed then attacked Baghdad in 960 and succeeded in ousting Khalifa Mustafa. In the end, his son Fazal Khalifa became the caliph. Fazal made Ahmed Amir al-Imara by addressing Muzdollah. At the same time, his brother Ali was honored with the address of Emad al-Dawla and Hassan in the address of Makhdul-Dawla. Gradually, Muzdollah gained such power that afterwards, the Khalifa seat became a puppet in the hands of the All-Buoya sitting on the Caliphate. The Al-Buwa’i regime eventually fell into three parts, ie Ray, Iraq and Persia, and Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi seized many territories and pushed them toward western Iran and Iraq. Then the whole empire ended in the hands of Al-Seljuq.
Shams-ud-Dulah, Emad-ud-Dula, Ghazal-ud-Dula, Baha’-ud-Dula, the ruler of Al-Buwa’i, who was the successor of Ali Ahmed and succeeded Al-Buwaya, the minister of the province.
Dawlat Ghaznavia (962 to 1186 AD)
Abd al-Malik ibn Nuh had appointed Al-Ptagin as governor of Khorasan. Abdul Malik was succeeded by his brother Mansoor bin Noah Samani in 962. So the Alptegin who had voted against the throne of Mansur bin Noah. From Khorasan came Ghazni, which was a small town at that time. Here, the Alptegin established a sovereign state and ruled.
In 977, Alpatine died when his son, Isaac Ghazni, was replaced. But with a few days’ experience, he proved incompetent and incompetent, and the military chiefs ousted him, who was also the son-in-law and son-in-law of Alpatine. Made him king
It is well known to the saboteurs that he was a slave to Alpatine.
But the slavery just happened by accident.
That is, some robbers arrested him on the way alone. Taken in Bukhara and sold as slaves. The lineage of the subcontinent extends to the king of Iran. That is, some of the historians have abandoned the commentators, namely, Saqqat bin Bin Jawq Qur Bin Yahma bin Bin Arsalan Bin Qura Nation Noman Bin Yazd. Some say that he was abandoned by his father and Iranian by his mother. According to the Asian custom, the rich and large officials of the king do not consider themselves dishonest in calling themselves slaves of the king, so it is possible that as a soldier in the army of the Alpatineg, the salagatine called himself the slave of the alpatine. ۔
The sabkatins ruled Ghazni for almost twenty years. Raj J Pal of Punjab and Sindh invaded his country, defeated him and imprisoned him and released on the promise of tribute.
The javelin infiltrated and again invaded the backward country from a three million Lashkar-e-Jarrar. But the wise men fought against him with only a few thousand soldiers, and this time they defeated him and arrested him and left him with the promise of obedience. But due to shame, J.P. Paul died alive upon his return. Noah bin Mansour gave him the address of Nasiruddin. The saboteurs greatly expanded Ghazni’s empire and died in 997.Central Asia
Mahmood’s throne: Mahmud was thirty years of age when Amir Shaktigan passed away and was in Nishapur at that time. Taking advantage of Mahmud’s absence, his younger brother Ishmael, fortunately or unfortunately, was with his father. Knowing the opportunity, the throne was seized. Ismail opened the treasury’s mouth as soon as he was crowned.
The chiefs began to exchange rewards for taking the ministers into their own hands and merging with them. Which often led to selfishness. Mahmud was saddened when these conditions were reported and immediately sent a message of condolences to Amir Ismail, who wrote, “O my dear, nothing is more dear to you in the world than you. You are young and if you have experience of the ruins of the age and the administration of the kingdom, then I would be in favor of you.
Since the matter is contrary, it is wise that we divide the kingdom. Let the capital be turned over to me, and the palaces of Balkh and Khorasan come into your possession. ”
These rational sayings had no effect on Amir Ismail. The result was a fight between the two brothers. Mahmud left Nishapur and Ismail Ghazni, but Amrai Danshmand convinced Ismail that he should refrain from this civil war.
But no one could spell it. Mahmud eventually defeated him and Ishmael had to spend the rest of his life in the captive Jarjan. In 997, Prince Mahmud Sultan Mehmood became king of Ghaznavi.
In the world, only a human being can grow up to be possessed by good qualities and who have had the opportunity to take advantage of his qualities.
Mahmud was a smart and awake kid from childhood. It was only in his youth that seeing the magnificent and glorious achievements of the fortune, that the great-hearted cold warriors and ministers of Saqqagin used to say that Mahmud would be the great Jalil al-Qadr of the world. Along with his father, he had great opportunities to train his natural essence in various campaigns, and in these instances he proved that Mahmud’s yeast was lifted from glory and honor.
In these wars, the greatest advantage to Mahmud was that he thoroughly realized that the mountain tribes could be of great benefit to the expanding empire, by experimenting with the guile of the Zabulist soldiers living in the mountainous areas around Ghazni. So much of the invasion of India by Mahmud. The Gods of these tribes benefited from perseverance.
After his brother’s fight, Mahmud turned to Balkh.
Soon he conquered Balkh, Khorasan, Herat and Sistan, and lost his ability. Around him, his youthful giggle sounded. Even in the year 1003, the Caliph Al-Qadir Ballah Abbasi addressed Mahmud-ul-Mutt by leading Mahmud to a grandmother.
The greatest revolution in history was that Mahmud’s specialization in the proximity of the tide was that the splendor of the two oppressive goods disappeared forever, and the family hoisted the flag of Ghaznavia on every side.
After the overthrow of these countries, Mahmud became involved in managing the cause. On his departure from management he left for India. Mahmud made 17 attacks on India. Among these attacks, the Somnath attack is particularly famous. The details are as follows.
In 1024 Mahmud planned to attack Somnath. Somnath was one of the most renowned Tirthas of both of India.
Like the Temple of Taos, the temple was made of twisted pearls and numerous diamonds and diamonds. The hiding pillars were made of minimalist jewelry. Two summon gold chains were hanging. Two hundred villagers were dedicated to the cost of this temple.
The Sultan started making special preparations to capture the Somnath. Moreover, it was so far away from Ghazni from Somnath that it was difficult for Mahmud to reach there, and then he must also think that an Afghan could not survive in Ghazni in the event of defeat.
In view of this danger, the Sultan recruited numerous troops from Turkestan, Bukhara, Khiva, Kafristan, Khorasan and Afghanistan, and left with Ghazni in September with an army.
On November 9, the Sultan reached Multan and arranged water for crossing the desert. In addition to stored food, give each soldier two camels to fetch water. In addition, water was brought on 20,000 camels.
So that the army will be safe from the thirst in the way. At last, the 350-km-long desert descended to Ajmer. The Raja of Ajmer fled as soon as he heard the name of Mahmud. Mahmud then reached Somnath directly. For four to five days, the war of attrition continued. The guards of the firefighters stabbed the Afghans with arrows. This was the last attempt against the Hindu Pathans.
When the Afghans came to realize their defeat, they were attacked so violently that they gave away the sixes of Hindus. Thousands of Hindus were killed in the attack. Many of the boats escaped. Mahmud ordered his pursuit. Due to which the fleeers were often drowned. Mahmud received numerous possessions from here. In the joy of the victory, the Caliph Baghdad addressed the Sultan’s sons and brothers.
Mahmud was a Jalil al-Qadr of his time. The qualities necessary for a winner Mahmud was a composite of them all. Bravery was lying in his throat. It is fair to say that Mahmud spent the days of his life in the shadow of the agus and in the shadow of the aggressors. In addition to other victories during the 25 years, India carried out seventeen invasions and returned each time to fill its mausoleum.Central Asia
The result of these attacks was that the Ghazni flag was hoisted on the western districts of Punjab. In the east Kannauj and Gujrat in the south, Kathiawar ruled such subordinates who for a long time could be called subordinate to the Sultan. The Sultan did not intend to rule India permanently. But still it made Punjab an aristocratic province of Ghaznavia.
However, the visitors only camped in Peshawar. Mahmud is the first Muslim king of India. He cleared the way for Islamic conquests. In addition to the victories of India, Mahmood undermined all of Afghanistan, Bukhara, Khivas, Balkh, Khorasan, Kafristan, Iran and Iraq. That is why the Sultan’s army consisted of Arabs, Iraqis, Uzbeks, Afghans, Gulfs, Turks, Balkans, Tatars and Indians.
The great kings shook in the name of the Sultan. Mahmud took special care of one of his soldiers. Soldiers cut to the climax were considered the biggest duty of their lives. Mahmood was his own example for military management. It was Mahmud’s job to organize such a vast empire and secure the concession. Central Asia
The wrong standard of generosity and generosity was established in the tenth century by the wasteful expenditures of the Eastern merchants.
For this reason some historians consider Sultan Mahmood a distant king. He was a big businessman. In terms of skills and knowledge, it can be said without hesitation that the Sultan was his own example. It is doubtful that he did not merely disregard the treasury royal. But in the pro-life of writers, poets, scholars, that river was located.
Whenever he got a chance from battles and domestic politics. He used to sit on his throne receptive to the ideas of poets and the innovations of scholars and scholars. Mahmud himself was a great scholar. He was a great expert on jurisprudence He compiled a book on theology, distinguishing it in jurisprudence He wrote on the Hanafi religion The Sultan is one of the jurists in jurisprudence.
In his court there was a gathering of scholars from all ages. Young workers such as Abu Rehan al-Biruni, Bo Ali Sina, Ansari, Farkhi, Ferdousi, Abu Nasr Farabi were admirers of Mahmud’s ceremony. In addition four hundred poets were disgraced. These poets were ordered to show their words in the first element.
Alberoni: Abu Rehan al-Biruni, whose book is still widely regarded among the scholars of the Islamic world.
Sultan Mahmud was the grandson of a young Naat. Alberuni came to India and studied Sanskrit with high-ranking intellectuals and pundits, and served India with a great deal of knowledge and knowledge in acquainting the world with Indian science and philosophy. The “Book of India” of old, the old history of this epoch, throws light on India.
Alberoni asks Mahmood sometimes strange questions about knowledge.
One of the authors of Chahar’s article writes that one day Mahmud Bagh was surrounded by four walls. Ask Alberoni what way should I go? Alberoni wrote something on paper and put it under the pillow. The king ordered that the wall be broken. The king went out of the way to break the wall. When viewed on paper by Alberoni, it was written.
The king will break out of the wall of security. Mahmud wanted to lower Alberoni. But it was a failure. Which caused the royal jaws to become contaminated. Ordered that Abu Rehan be dropped from the ceiling. When dropped, there was a net in the lower floor. Abu Rehan fell on a trap. From which he survived. The king summoned and asked that you knew that you would fall from the roof. When he showed the album out of pocket, the incident was written.
Central Asia Abu Nasr Farabi:
The Hindi silver and hair follicer Hakim and philosopher Farabi, who were the ones who rated Aristotle’s philosophy, were also irritated by Mahmud’s uber-worm splints.
Allama Abu al-Khair Mohammad:
The proud Sultan of the knowledgeable plantation Abu al-Khair Muhammad’s Sultan encouraged him so much that he made it his special name.
The Sultan built a great Darul Uloom in Ghazni and collected numerous books in it.
There was no book of world-renowned sciences and arts that could be hidden from the Sultan’s view. He spent a considerable amount of money on the supply of rare prescriptions. A large part of the conquest of India was done by Mahmud on this Darul Uloom. Set student and seminar scholarships.
Devoted a great deal of money to the establishment and management of this Darul Uloom. The ruins of Ghazni began to rain.
Opened a pension scheme for the scholars that cost Rs 1 lakh.
In addition, Sheikhs, Sufis and clerics from distant countries used to receive assistance from the Durbar Sultan. His highest virtue was that where he was a lion king and conqueror on the battlefield, there was a high degree of humility in front of the scholars in his court.
Where Vali Khorasan and Maharaj Ghan rectified the pride of India with a glance of anger, it was also that in the humility of capable and extravagant human beings, the lover gave more than enthusiasm. Some historians believe that no merchant of the East has accompanied him in generously welcoming and appreciating the virtues of Bakmal.
Mahmud himself was a poet and Mahmud himself was a pseudonym.
Mahmud’s name will still survive because he built numerous magnificent buildings. Sultan Mathra was stunned by the buildings. He had pledged to construct buildings like Mathra in Ghazni. So he built the first museum and collected museums from all over the world.
Remote tourists used to come to visit these exciting jobs and give a shout out to Mahmood’s industrialism. The Sultan made a shortfall for himself. The mansion and the fountain of this palace was Benazir. Inspired by the magnificent Sultanate, Amra and Rousseau also built magnificent magnificent palaces. In a country like Afghanistan, the practice of craftsmanship and architecture came from the Sultan’s craft, and Ghazni, considered to be the center of bandits and the cantonment of the rebels, became a source of knowledge and art because of its gardens, palaces, madrassas and buildings. Gaya and the big cities of Asia fell in comparison.
The Sultan spent a large amount of money for public donations.
Ghazni’s 140-foot-tall minaret language is currently testifying that Mahmud has been second to none in this regard. The closed sultanate was built by the Sultan for irrigation in the form of an artificial lake. It was generally a source of food for the public and especially for farmers. According to Emperor Babar, the dam was 80 to 100 feet high and 600 feet long.
The Sultan built a strong bridge over the Jihadi River. The bridge gained great popularity for Mahmud. By the name of “Eros Flick,” he built a magnificent mosque of marble on which excavations of fine sculptures and gold painters were made, and a high-value carpet was erected by Sultan. Has invented a new style construction.
Which was an excellent center of Iranian and Indian industry. This style developed in the future.
The sultan set up a magnificent garden and a luxurious garden called Dilksha and built a magnificent palace in this Chamanistan, where the Sultan invited all the officials, rich and nobles of Ghazni.
The study of the books written in Ahl al-Mahmood shows that the Sultan sent two gifts to the Caliph Baghdad. In both of these gifts was a lizard-shaped bird. It was characteristic that when poisonous food was done in front of him, he would start to moan and spit like a rooster and his eyes would shed tears. This rare bird was a classic example of Mahmud’s post industry. The second gift was a stone that was the ointment of every wound, and when it was rubbed on the wounds of a wound, the wound would heal immediately.
Mahmud’s Empire:Central Asia
Large historians and researchers are amazed at how Mahmud, who spent most of his life in the war, managed such a vast empire. Most noticeable and noticeable is that in those days there was a period of prostitution and civil war. One of the major arguments of Mahmud’s administrative ability is that the territories he conquered in India were entrusted to many local rulers.
These subordinates would receive tribute. His concession was learned because the rulers were always afraid of the Sultan, so that their complaint would not reach the Sultan. Mahmud recruited the Hindus in the army to take their confidence and in the battle of Khurasan thousands of Hindus fought against the guile of Afghans. Also the Hindus’ army fought against the Ghoris.
Iranians take over in Mahmud’s court:
The Iranians had a prominent influence in Darbar Mahmood. The first Prime Minister of Sultan Mahmood was Abu al-Abbas Fazal bin Ahmed. He served for ten years. Abu al-Abbas was a special queen in the administration. Both Raia and the concessionaire were happy with it. Most of Mahmud’s coronation was the court and official language of Afghanistan.
All the office papers were written in Arabic. Since Abu al-Abbas was Iranian and did not have much queen in Arabic. Therefore, it was replaced by Arabic by the Persian. Mahmud made great progress in the Persian language It is not wrong to say that the basic brick of Persian rise was laid by Mahmud.
When Abu al-Abbas was ousted, Khwaja Hassan bin Ahmed took over the Ministry of Prison.
This man was a foster brother of the Sultan. We were a great expert in lessons and Arabic and Persian literature. The two Prime Ministers were Iranian. In addition to these, there were also Iranian foals in large positions and positions. Because in that time, only the Persians were considered intellectuals.
Ferdowsi and Mahmood:
Fardossi was associated with Mahmud’s court. In Mahmud’s time, he wrote a surname and compiled the ancient history of Iran.
When the pseudonym was completed, Perry and Natwani took it. Poverty replaced by prosperity. Therefore, Pardesi thought that he would receive a reward from the Sultan for his hard work and live a prosperous life. When Ferdousi approached the Sultan, the Sultan greatly appreciated it. A magnificent house was given to Pardesi to live, and to pay a thousand gold dinars for every thousand poems.
When Ferdousi said thousands of poems, Prime Minister Hassan Mamandi sent thousands of gold dinars to him. Firdousi said she was not ready to receive the prize in installments. The prime minister’s stance against Ferdowsi was staggering. When Ferdousi learned of the Prime Minister’s displeasure, instead of quelling his anger, he said some harsh words about both Mahmood and the Prime Minister.
Man Bonds Cause Basics Milestones are always rhythm-free
So, the minister was cleared! Let the grief of the King be with you It is also narrated that the Sultan wanted to give a generous reward to Ferdowsi. But the prime minister, who was angry with Pardesi, advised the Sultan that a Muftilas like Pardesi would be happy to see such a large amount of money.
Therefore, it must first be sent to sixty thousand cash dirhams. But Ferdousi refused to take the money and, out of fear, Taus ran away and on the wall of the mosque where Mahmud used to pray. This poem was written. That’s right, Mahmoodz is a badass
The river that flows through the river, is not born Cho Divers Ha Zadam and Nededim in!
Sin is a sin and a sin Mahmud was very upset when he read these verses.
Immediately, sixty thousand gold dirhams and one Khalqah were sent to Firda Ferdousi. When the pack entered the royal palace, it was discovered that Ferdowsi had disappointed with the courtiers of the world and had gone to the court of God. Ferdowsi wanted to take the rupees from the Sultan and build a dam on the river Taws. So Mahmud built a dam on the river Taos, as per Ferdowsi’s wish. Sultan Mahmood’s death: Sultan suffered from diarrhea for two years. But the disease did not stop him from doing anything. Every few physicians instructed the Sultan to refrain from work. But he was forced into his habits. He thought of curing diseases as a way of putting his life into trouble and hard work. Finally, when the disease was extinguished, the jewels, the treasures, and all the goods of glory and glory were ordered to be displayed
The winner of his time, riding on the back of a horse without having to set foot on the rakab, came to see the exhibition by riding on a sedan forced by the sick. Tear down the world’s instability and shed the blood, saying the following:
Thousands of fortresses hold back signs
Insufferable suspicion was found
Death and circumcision interest in death
May God be the only God of survival
On April 19, at the age of 63, the emperor of the most expensive jewelry, the golden emperor’s throne, was deposed.
Mahmud was moderately tall but the limbs were proportional. Mahmud would have been very beautiful if he had not had smallpox scars on his face. He was very fond of exercise. So he became accustomed to appearing with great alertness and persistence in everything.
Mahmud Ghaznavi was the sole ruler of his time, Benazir Ulu-Azam, a businessman, Adeem al-Muttal, an ardent administrator and a learned and talented emperor.
His special ability was to show mercy to the defeated enemy and to lower the proud head. The stiff necks and bent foreheads of the big brains bowed down to him, and no one dared to look at Mahmud’s face without even looking at him.
It was a privilege to inform the poor, the needy and the poor, and to seek the prosperity of the concession and the gratification. Shujaat was his own example of courage and courage. Above all, the most striking feature of it all was that despite Mahmud being a great conqueror, he was a man of religion and a godly man.
End of State Partition:
Mahmud had arranged his vast empire for his two sons in the same way that Caliph Haroon al-Rashid Abbasi did for his two sons Amin and Mamun. Mahmud Ghaznavi’s sons fought each other as did Amin and Mamun. But Mamun was able to retain the power and power of his brother Amin. Mahmud’s son Masood could not retain the glory and glory of the Pak Empire over his brother Muhammad.
Massoud and Muhammad’s fight:Central Asia
Mahmud gave the government of Mawralnahr, Khorasan, Ghaznavi and Ghazni Punjab to his younger son Muhammad and gave the government of Khwarism, Iraq, Persia, Isfahan, etc. to his eldest son Masood. As soon as Mahmud died, the dispute between the two brothers began.
Mohammad sat on the throne of Ghazni and Massoud marched in the ray. First, the dispute began that Masood, being an elder brother, wanted me to be named before Muhammad in the sermon.
Muhammad used to say that I am sitting on my father’s throne. My name should be read in all countries before the Masjid inside the Sermon. It was just an excuse. The two brothers were willing to take each other down. Eventually, Masud attacked Ghazni and captured his brother Mohammed. After his imprisonment, Mohammed lost sight of both eyes.
Sultan Masood invaded Balochistan and Makran by marching to the throne of Ghazni and added the area to his government. When princes fight for the throne in an empire, rebellious forces are created in every part of the empire. As a result of the blindness of Muhammad ibn Mahmud, it became difficult for Masood to take over this vast and glorious kingdom.
The Seljuq Turks started looting in the region of progressive malnutrition. Meanwhile, in India and Punjab, some of the suburbs here have rebelled and rebelled against the one-sided government. Sultan Masood acted with great courage and determination. Defeat the Salajuks in succession and Khurasan. In these circumstances, India was invaded and destroyed by conquering the strongholds of Sarasti and Hansi.
Immediately returned from India to Ghazni. So you see, the Seljuqs are competing with even greater numbers. Massoud defeated them all the time. But each time, he was able to regain control and plunder. Sultan Masood had a special interest in the preparation of Hindu armies in the army and educating them in the military. Also, the salaries of Hindus were set higher than Iranians and Afghans. The fall of Massoud and the fall of Massoud:
Massoud made Tilak, a Hindu pilgrimage, addressed to Amir al-Murai and Maharaja, and made him the military chief. So the Hindus, upon seeing this point, switched from the Amr Durbar Masud and started bringing the letter to the complainant. At this Hindu extremism, it was also a surprise to everyone that in the battle of Makran, the Hindu uprising had shown great cowardice and despair.
After this examination, no one expected that when Sultan Masood came out, these Hindu soldiers first escaped, leaving Sultan Masood and his Afghan army in danger and death. Sultan Masood’s life was saved by the disappearance of a few geniuses. But he brought the brunt of defeat. After the defeat, Masood had some kind of retribution and misery that he left his minister and son Maudud in Ghaznin and carried all the wealth and treasures on camels, elephants, rabbits and accompanied them with the Hindu chiefs. Left for India to make Lahore a capital.Central Asia
And will stay there because Masood had already stated his intention in Ghaznin.
Therefore, the chiefs and princes of the city tried very hard to keep the Sultan out of their intentions and explained that the defeat of Allaah will be very soon. But Masood’s heart began to beat in the name of fighting like a Hindu soldier and it had no effect and left his father’s capital and swept into Ghaznin’s treasury and proceeded to Ghaznin with his son, Maudud, who was in Balkh these days. Was on the bad side.Central Asia
Letter sent “I appoint you ruler of Ghaznin and Khorasan, etc., and your names and decrees and proper instructions will continue to flow from me. Follow them and keep trying to clear the country from the Turks. ”Central Asia
At that time Masud crossed the Indus River, and as soon as he arrived, the Hindu rebels and the Hindu chieftains, who were with him, changed their eyes and all of them fell on the royal treasury.
All the treasures that Shabbatin and Mahmud had accumulated over the course of half a century, the Hindus looted along the Indus River shortly afterwards, leaving Sultan Masood with a small group of Muslims and dispersing.
Extermination and murder of Sultan Masood:
Seeing this heartbreaking and soul-wrenching view, this brief gathering of Muslims ousted Sultan Masood because of his turbulent mind and liberated his brother Mohammed, who was blind and accompanied by Masood in the journey. Made.
When Masood was arrested and presented to Muhammad, Mohammed did not avenge his brother’s eyes. Instead, just discover what you like for yourself. Massoud said that I should be allowed to live in the fort “Cree”, so Muhammad sent him to the family of Mullah’s family, and issued his coin and address in Punjab and border areas.
Muhammad’s son Ahmed avenged his father’s eyes in a manner that killed him. On hearing this, Muhammad was enraged and sent a message to his nephew, Maudood, who was in Balkh at the time, saying that I did not kill your father Masood by my orders. Upon hearing this news, the army withdrew. From here, Mohammed’s army stopped by the Indus River.
There was a fight in which Muhammad was arrested by Moodud on the death of his father. After that, Maudood Ghaznain went to the throne in 1044.
Models 1044 to 1050 AD:Central Asia
Maudud, like his father Masood, fought many battles with the Seljuqs, but was eventually forced to abdicate with Maureenhar and the Indian government. All the other countries – Khorasan, Khurramism and Iraq – were permanently out of Ghazni, and the Seljuqs became kings of these countries.
Ali died on the throne Central Asia in 1050 AD. In 1052 his brother, Abdul Rashid, sat on his throne and was captured by Tughral. But the Ulema soon agreed and killed Tughral, and in 1053 appointed Farkhzad ibn Mas’ud to the throne of Ghazni.
Farruz Zad Bin Masood:
Farukhzad expressed his courage by being enthroned, and by providing troops he tried to expel Khurasan from the occupation of the Salajuis.
In the beginning, in many battles, Farrukhzad overcame the Seljuqs, but when Al-Arsan fought against the Seljuqs, Ghazni’s army was defeated and Farruz Zad could not be captured by Khorasan.
After Farruzadeh in 1059, his brother Ibrahim ibn Mas’ud took the throne. Sultan Ibrahim was a very good, brave and wise man. He took the throne and considered it appropriate to reconcile with the Salajuqis. After this treaty they considered themselves the legitimate ruler of Khorasan and for the future the war between the Ghazis and the Salajuis ceased.
Satisfied with this, Sultan Ibrahim turned his attention to India till now the sultans of Ghazni were engaged in their local disputes and the battles of the Saljuks. So for a long time India was not attracted. During this period, most of the princes and rulers of India became independent and refrained from paying tribute. Sultan Ibrahim made several attacks on Indian rebellions and strengthened his government in this regard.
Sultan Ibrahim ruled for 42 or 43 years. Died in 1102
After Abraham, his son Massoud was enthroned and died in 1118, ruling for 16 years. He also made Lahore his last throne for some time.
After Massoud, his son Arsalan was enthroned and ruled for three years. In 1121, Sultan Sanjar Seljuqi conquered Ghazni and appointed Arsalan’s brother Bahram bin Masood bin Ibrahim on the throne of Ghazni.
Behram ruled for more than 35 years. He made several attacks on India to crush the rebels and was often based in Lahore. During his reign, the book was written in the mouth and mouth. In the last period of Sultan Bahram, the Ghorais invaded Ghazni and expelled Bahram from Ghaznin, and fled to India and died in Lahore in 1156.
Now only Punjab was left in the control of Ghazni. Ghazni government was established on Ghazni.
After the death of Behram, his son Khusroo Shah took the throne in Lahore. He tried to evacuate and withdraw Ghazni from the Ghoris, but the attempt did not succeed. He died in Lahore after ruling the Punjab for eight years. Then his son Khusro Malik was crowned Lahore in 1172. Khusro Malik was captured by the Ghoris and captured Punjab in 1186. In this way, only the myth was left, with the end of wealth Ghaznavia.
Seljuq Empire (1037 to 1157 AD)
The Seljuq Turks were a branch of the Turks. One of the founders of this family was the “right” or interim. (Meaning bow) The title was Timor Talis. He was one of the Turks, the peoples of Peghu, the king of the Dasht-e-Qiaq. His son’s name was Seljuq. Who used to refer to himself in the fourteenth generation of Abrasiab, and after his father, kept in the court of Pegho.
But one day, at some point, the Seljuq went out to his mother Samarkand and Bukhara, angry with Peg.
According to Ibn Athir, the departure of the Seljuq in 1629 was due to opposition to the Queen of Peghou and this short convoy formed near Jind and converted to Islam. But Rondi’s statement shows that Seljuq had converted to Islam before emigrating.
Not by the motivation of the Muslim factor of Jind became Muslim.
This area was at that time the ruler of the Turks of Peugeot. A few days later, when the affairs of Pegho came to receive tribute, Seljuq said to the ruler, “It is not seen to me that the infidels should come and pay tribute to the Muslims.” Seeing the courage of the Seljuqs, the residents there were ready for the contest.
So together with Seljuq, Peugeot’s actions were invaded. In this attack, Seljuq was victorious and his bravery gained fame and his people came and joined him.
When Elk Khan attacked Noah Sani, Seljuq showed bravery against Noah Khan. In this battle, Seljuq’s son, Michael, was killed.
Michael’s two sons were Tughril Beg and Chaghar Beg. His grandfather began to be trained by Seljuq. Seljuq had four more sons. Whose names were Israel, Jonah, Panal, and Moses.
The extraordinary bravery of a person in the Turkish and Mogul tribes was enough to make him the chief nation. Seljuq and his sons soon gained fame and courage.
Around this the Turks’ gathering was abundant. By that time, Salajuq had passed away.
Chaluger Beg, the grandson of Seljuq, wanted a group to go to Armenia to attack Christians. The element of Taus allowed a mujahid-i-sabil to pass through his office. But Mahmud was a distant king.
When he learned that the Seljuq group had passed through his area. So he demanded an answer from the author Taos, and he was worried that this group of robbers would not try to overthrow my country. When Chaghar Beg returned from Armenia with a victory, the number and power of the Salajuans increased even more. Now they began to feed their cattle in Balkh, and they settled there. Mahmud Ghaznavi, being aware of the situation, through his factor summoned the chief of the Seljuqs to his court. By age, Seljuk’s son Israel was the greatest and most intelligent person. So he was sent to Darbar Mahmoodi. Mahmud honored Israel in the courthouse and discovered many things about how many men you can help if I need to.
Israel put its arrow in front and said that if you send that arrow into our tribes, one million soldiers will be present. Mahmud said how many more people could give if he needed more. Israel bowed its head and said that if you send this command to our tribes, two hundred thousand soldiers will be ready. Hearing this answer, Mahmood stopped Israeli bail peace and sent him to India.Central Asia
Where he was imprisoned for seven years in the fort of Kalnagar. The leadership of the Salajuans was related to the Tughral bag and the Chaghar bag. The two brothers lived in unison and ruled their respective tribes together.
Mahmud Ghaznavi gave the first Seljuqs pasture as some land in Mawralnhar and then allowed them to cross the Jihadi River and settle in Khorasan.
Arsenal observer Taus and Balkh objected to this, saying that it was a warring nation that would be tormented at some point. Why do you allow them to come from this river jihad? But Mahmud knew his power. Also he knew that he could be employed by recruiting them into the army. On the other hand, he kept Israel as hostage. When Mahmud passed away, Sultan Masood ordered the release of Israel from the fortress of Kalanger immediately.
But according to Raundi, the author of Rahat al-Sadhur, he had died in prison and had forgotten this famous motto afterwards (do not open a door that you cannot close) and do not run an arrow that you do not bring back. Can.
After Israel’s imprisonment, his son escaped slaughter and went into hiding, and after a while he met his family in Bukhara, and vowed that he would take his father’s story from Sultan Mahmood.
At that time, according to the wishes of Mahmud and the Khazarism monarchs, Israel’s brother Mikhail, along with his tribe, marched near Nassa and Abiord in 1034. Mahmud believed that if these people were removed from their original center, their strength would also decrease. Soon after the migration of the Seljuqs, Ghazni also did not have the fortune to settle in China.
After the throne of Massoud, the empire had not yet been fully in control, and Chaghar Beg conquered Marat and Herat.
Massoud’s tribulation begins when he removes his brother Mohammed from the throne and occupies the throne of Ghazni.
In 1035, when Massoud invaded Iran once more to perpetuate his occupation of Iran, it was followed by an uprising in India, and the Turks were liberated. Massoud almost successfully traveled the distance to Tabaristan. But going beyond that did not bring him any success.
Because Tughral and Chaghar Baig fought against Masud and took the Khorasan government. In 1038, Tigral Baig, son of Mikhail Bin Seljuq, declared his dominion ray, and Chaghar Beg made Maro its center. Shortly after, in 1039 Nishapur was captured.
Ibn Athir, narrating the story of these simple iron winners, writes that when they arrived in Nishapur, they saw many kafirs there and began to taste it because they thought it was very good white salt.
There was a time when Sultan Masood sought help from Tughral and Chaghar Beg during the war against the Gazans and defeated the Gazans with their help in Khorasan. The brothers helped Masood at first, but exactly two years later, when Masood left, Chaghar Beg attacked and defeated Masood’s representative and Ghaznavi chief, and all Khurasan was eventually captured by the Salajuqis.
430 AH, in 1038, the kingdom of Tughral was announced. Upon hearing that Masood, who had been entangled in the Indian uprisings till now, came to Khorasan from India and confronted the situation. But in 1039 he was defeated by the Seljuks. Despite his defeat, Masood once again returned to the Indian army to assemble but was killed a year later.
Three years after Massoud’s death, his son Maudud attacked the Salajuqis, but he too had to be defeated. After the defeat of Moodud, Ghaznavi could not handle it so much that he would go to Khorasan. Meanwhile, the Seljuqs wrote a letter to the Caliph Baghdad-based Ballah. Complained against Ghazni and insisted on making himself king, assuring his support.
The Caliph approved the petition of the Saljuqi rulers. He sent Al-Bilal ibn Al-Mamouni as ambassador to the court of Tughral and ordered the issuance of coins and sermons by the name of Tughral Seljuqi, instead of Al-Buwaya.
The Seljuqs gradually controlled all of Iran and established a vast empire in Iran. After all, the empire was divided.
(i) Musat Arsalan, son of Seljuq, of Bast, Herat, Sistan, came to Musa Arsalan, and Musa Arsalan’s nephews came to Chaghar Beg, Dawood and Tughral, and Iraq.
(ii) Two sons of Chaghar Baig Qadir Diya Kardat and Yakuti found the areas of Kerman, Taos, Tabas, Azerbaijan and Bukhara. His third son, Alp Arslan, liked to live with his uncle Tughral Beg.
Who made “Ray” his capital. The area of Hamdan was given to Ibrahim ibn Niall ibn Seljuq and to Girgan and Damgan in the part of Kaltmash son of Moses Arslan.
Tughral Bagh sought the privilege of meeting the Caliphate al-Qa’im after finishing the victories. Upon accepting the request, Tughral arrived in Baghdad in 1055, where it was received with great honor.
As soon as Tughral arrived at the service of the Caliph, he kissed the ashes of the throne with great fervor. The Caliph lifted him and placed him on another throne. Which was decorated with his throne. After that the decree was read. In which Tughral was appointed as the Caliph’s Messenger and the Imamate of the Muslims. As a symbol of the Caliphate’s reign of Kishore, the Caliph granted seven pagans and seven slaves to Tughral.
Then he released a red carpet that was full of musk and amber. He was then crowned with two sides, which meant the kingdom of Iran and the Hijaz. After this warm welcome, Tughral Baig lived in Baghdad for more than a year.
Bags: The Tughral Bag remained in the Darbar caliphate for about a year and a half. During this time, Tughral’s niece and Arsalan’s sister, the sister of Al-Arsalan, were married to Khalifa from Dhoom Dham.
According to a tradition of Tughral, Rasool Akram was warned in a dream and then departed from the Darbar caliphate. Then Tughral also assisted the Caliph in promoting the revolt of the Turkish forces which had invaded Mosul and Diyarbakar, and perhaps Tughral once again appeared to the Caliph to gain control of the caliphate from the Caliphate and According to his wishes, he was given the address of Malik al-Mushriq al-Mughar from the Darbar Caliphate.
But these elements did not satisfy him.
Married to Caliph’s sister:
When his wife died in 1041, he requested the Caliph to marry the Caliph’s daughter. But according to the author of Rahat al-Sadhur, Tughral married a caliph’s sister. The caliph did not like this request and at first he protested a lot. But given the increasing power of Tughral, the Khalifas and members of the Dalal decided that marriage would be formal.
Spouses will not be allowed to separate. So Tughral accepted this condition and was married on that condition. The marriage was similar to that of Aaron Rashid, who married his sister Abbas to Jafar Barmaki.
After getting married, Tughral returned but in the second year Durbar came to the Caliphate and brought jewelry and jewelry for his wife.
He presented the wife to the court and arranged for the Baghdad dinner for several days. At that time, when he wished to take his wife, he was reminded of his promise that he would not be separated from his wife. So he stayed on and went back after a few days. But in the same year, on September 4, 1063, on the 8th of Ramadan, 455, Tughral died.
According to the author Rahat al-Sadhur the bride was transported from Baghdad to Tabriz. But not long before the bride Ray, who was in charge of the Tughral. News of Tughral’s death was reached and the princess returned to Baghdad.
Tughral was seventeen years old after his death. He was a successful, hard-working, wise and generous king. Since Tughral Bag Lolod died and his brother Chaghar Baig died on 18 Rajab 451h four years ago.
So after that his nephew who lived with him. That is, Sultan Alp Arsalan bin Chaghar Baig became his successor and madamlam caliphate.
Shortly after the assassination of Al-Arsalan, the former king’s minister, Abdul Malik al-Kandri, tried to get Alp Arslan’s brother Suleiman to sit on the throne. But after the failure of this effort, Alexandri himself had to be put to death.
Where, after a year of imprisonment, he was killed by two employees sent to Al Arslan.
History tells us that Alexandri had said goodbye to his family, requesting that he be killed by the sword instead of hanging and that before he died he sent a message to Al-Arsalan and Nizam-ul-Mulk asking him to tell me your family. There have been huge rewards from.
Your uncle gave me the government of this world and you gave me a jumble of martyrdom and gave me the kingdom of love. In this way, I had the benefit of both worlds.
This message was sent to Nizam-ul-Mulk. I pray that you and your children will enjoy this ritual. At the time of Alekandri’s death, she was 40 years old. He was a great scholar of Arabic and a Shafi’i ally. He wrote great poems in Arabic, which he was traced to in his childhood in humor.
(Note) Alexandre was killed in the dead. He was buried in Sarnishapur. A bone of his head was sent to Kerman by the order of Nizam Mulk.
Alp Arslan (1063 to 1077 AD)
There is a difference of opinion regarding the date of birth of Alp Arslan. Ibn al-‘Asir sets his date of birth between 1032 and 1036. The author of Rahat al-Sadhwar states 1043 and also states that his reign was twelve years and at the time of his death he was thirty-four years.
The author, describing the personality of Rondi Alp Arslan, writes that he was a tall man.
His mustache was so long that when he went hunting, he would tie both ends and his arrow would never go wrong. He wore a high hat and people used to say that there was a distance of two yards between his hat and mustache. He was a fair ruler. Hurry your decisions and enforce your concessions very strongly.
In the month of Ramadan, he would distribute to the poor fifteen thousand dinars.
During his tenure his kingdom expanded greatly. From Mawlanar to Al-Aqsa Syria, his government was in power. He had also issued pensions for the needy. Was very keen on history. Victories: Al-Arslan’s government was very short. But during this period the Slovak Empire expanded greatly. He occupied Khatlon and Herat one year after the throne.
Then spread the revolts of Persia and Kerman. He then occupied Syria. The Arabs occupied and dominated the Fatimid Caliphate. This saved the Arabs. Liberated Mecca and Medina from their domination. Then Alp Arslan defeated the Roman legion of Asians in the Chak, and gave the Roman king Dev Johns Romanos a horrible halt at the meeting place in 1071 when the Asiatic cavalry was destroyed by a shortening of the Roman Empire.
There is a very decisive battle in Asian battles.
Caesar Rome was arrested in this fight and released on condition of payment. The number of Muslims in the war was only twelve thousand and Christians three million. When Al-Arslan saw the panic in the army due to lack of numbers, he was wearing a shroud and thrown an arrow at the ground. The sword jumped into the field with his hand in his hand.
When the army saw this situation, it was broken.
Muslim historians have written something strange about this incident. He mentions that Saad-ud-din Gohar Ain, the Prince of Al-Arslan, had a poor and ugly slave. The appearance of which was something that Nizam-ul-Mulk forbade him to go to the army and said as a joke that what would be the benefit of sending him into the army would imprison Caesar’s Rome a little.
But when he was about to be arrested and killed, a slave of the king told him that this was our Caesar, so he was captured and taken to Alp Arslan. Al-Arslan asked him why I refused to obey when I told you three times. Caesar replied that criticism at this time could be of no use. I am now ready to obey your order. Alp Arslan asked him how you would have treated me if you had arrested me. Caesar replied, “I am very strict with you. Alp Arslan asked again. What do you expect from me now Caesar replied, “There is no other choice but to either kill me or imprison me in all Islamic countries. It is not possible that you will forgive me or receive me a ransom and make me your slave.” Will make
Al-Arslan said your guess is wrong. I decided to be the last. So a ransom of 1.5 million was settled. The peace treaty also determined that the Romans would not attack the Islamic government for the next fifty years. Caesar accepted all the terms. Al-Arsalan gave him fifteen thousand dinars and a tent for creation and expenditure at the same time, and his officials were also released.
According to Rundi, this defeat of the Romans proved to be such a blow to their empire that they would never rise again. Two years later Alp Arslan prepared the war with the Turks (1972) Alp Arslan with two hundred thousand troops came to the Jihadi River and spent three weeks here. Here he was presented with Yusuf Khurzumi, a resident of Khwarkam and a guard of the fort.
Who showed courage and manliness in defending the fortress of Khwarism. Al-Arsalan asked him some questions, but he answered them with pride. With which the king was severely disturbed and ordered that the nails in his hands and feet be spit upon and killed. The prisoner said badly. This end of a brave human being like me would die of humiliation.
Alp Arslan arrived in the woods and ordered the guard to retreat and grab his bow and shoot at it. The arrow was misplaced and before the soldiers caught the prisoner, he quickly attacked Alp Arslan with a dagger. But Al-Arslan was not able to recover from the wound, and in 1077 Rahi Malik survived.
It was Gohar Ain who stabbed and killed Yusuf Khorazmi.
A boy was killed in Baghdad shortly afterwards. The deceased said while attending the court of Malik Shah. “As I killed your father’s murderer, my lord. You should have killed my son’s killer. ”The heirs of the killer agreed to give Frosh a huge sum. But he disobeyed and eventually ordered Malik Shah to kill him, because Frosh would not have agreed otherwise.
Alp Arslan survived two days after being injured. Then his son Malik Shah sat on the throne. Al-Arslan’s view was. “Don’t look at someone with contempt. Do not be critical of your ability and power. Work hard and put your trust in God. “
Malik Shah Seljuq till 1072 AD 1092:
Jalaluddin Malik Shah was just seventeen or eighteen years old when he took over his father’s vast empire. At first, he had many problems. Alptegin Khan Samarqandi captured Tabriz. Sultan Ibrahim Ghauri captured Malik Shah’s loyal uncle Usman and took the treasury to Afghanistan. Malik Shah’s uncle became a contender for the government and proceeded to Karaj to take the throne from his nephew. The king had to send an army against him.
The battle was fought near Hamdan, and the army of Quadrat (or Qadir) was defeated. After defeating Kadrat, he was arrested and then killed. His two sons, Sultan Shah and Iran Shah, were also arrested and blinded. On this occasion Nizam-ul-Mulk was honored with the address of Atabak.
After the death of the Caliph al-Qa’im the following year, his grandson al-Muqtaddi became the heir of the Darbar caliphate and a year later the Fatimids established his government in Mecca.
Which did not last more than a year. In the same year, Shah established a famous charity in which Umar Khayam, along with other scholars, worked to investigate the glorious year.
The glorious year was the year that the Sultan’s will was started on March 15, 1079, with the appointment of Nuroz. Two years later, in 1081, Malik Shah married his daughter Khalifa al-Mutkadi, the same year his son Dawood died before he could not allow the child’s body to be buried.
Then when it could not be stopped. So you started killing yourself. But gradually he forgot that sorrow. Because Nature gave him another child named Sanger. This is the time when the prayers of the predecessor of Nizam-ul-Mulk came to light. One of the clowns in the court of Malik Shah was Jafark. He played some voices on Nizam-ul-Mulk in the court, where the aspect of contempt was dominant.Central Asia
When Nizam-ul-Mulk’s eldest son, Jamal-ud-din, who was then governor of Khorasan, received this news, he could not bear it and immediately rushed to the court to get his father’s murder from Balkh.
He made a hole in the courtroom in the presence of the king in the language of the mocker. Malik Shah was silent at that time, but later he wrote to Mir Bo Ali of Khorasan, “If you want your security, poison Jamal Mulk and end it.” So, Ali performed the job through an employee of Jamal Malik. Central Asia
Malik Shah reached Baghdad twice during his tenure. The first went with Nizam Malik in 1087. There he visited the shrine of Imam Musa Karkhi, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Imam Abu Hanifa. He also presented valuable gifts to the Caliph Al-Muthadi. Malik Shah visited Baghdad for the second time in October 1091. During this period he conquered Bukhara Samarkand and other cities of Maurlanar and his kingdom was very prosperous.
It is stated here that the sailors who crossed Malik Shah’s forces from the Jihahi river, Nizam-ul-Mulk had written a check to the sailors of Asia-Kuch, which they received from the Asia-Kuchuk. This shows where the limits of the Slovak Empire were and how stable the financial management was.
In the days of Malik Shah, civil servants were also given reasonable compensation and they extended the boundaries of the empire from Syria and Iraq to Eden and the Black Sea.
He himself supervised the judiciary and loved, religion so much that he made well water for the pilgrims to drink. He was also keen on hunting, and at times he hunted so much that he built a minaret with the skulls and horns of dead animals He made a regular register to write down the details of his victim According to some traditions it is recorded that he hunted seventy deer in a single day.
Nizam-ul-Mulk was about 80 years old now. After graduating from court affairs, he focused on the administration of Nizamiya College. He was also a great scholar himself. At that time, members of the royal family began to envy Nizam-ul-Mulk. Her biggest enemy was the Turkish woman. She was developing a plot with the help of Taj Malik, the minister. Unfortunately, the grandson of Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was the son of Jamal-ul-Mulk, was the governor of Maru.
Tired of his cruelty to the people, a man complained to Malik Shah and the king angrily sent Nizam Malik. “Have you joined me in government? Your dear ones hold great positions in the state. It also boasts arrogance and pride. ”The old minister could not tolerate the satire. He wrote in reply, “He who has given you the crown.
He has given me a glove and these two things cannot be separated. The Sultan was greatly offended by this reply and separated Nizam-ul-Mulk from the job and replaced him as the Turkoman woman’s minister, Taj Malik. But Nizam-ul-Mulk could not tolerate this dishonesty for long. Thus, according to Ramadan 485 AH, on 1092, near Dehradun, a Delmite youth who was a member of the group of Hassan ibn Sabah, the Fidaiyas. In the evening, Nizam entered Malk’s tent and killed him with a dagger. In this way, the prayer of the forerunner of Nizam-ul-Mulk was fulfilled. Malik Shah also died a month after Nizam-ul-Mulk’s death, and thus the second great king of the Seljuq family left the world.
Malik Shah’s character:
Emad-ud-din Isfahani writes that Malik Shah Adil Shuja was zealous, fearless, sir Larai, Baadbir and the real ruler of the throne. The Seljuq sultan had a ratio in its beginning and end. Conquered the country he invaded and subdued the enemy that came out to fight. Syria reached the border of Antioch to Constantinople, and received from these countries a thousand dinars of red.
Malik Shah occupied so many countries and expanded the territory of the Saljuqi government so much that no such example can be found in any later period, except the Caliphs. The area of his empire was in length from China to Jerusalem, and lately from Constantinople to the Mediterranean Sea.
Along with the expansion of the empire, it also brought him to Ouj Kamal as a scholar and civilization.
They installed the government plant. He ate the fruit. They spread the throne. Bring it to its time. Its era was the time of the royal and royal decoration of the Shabbat country of the Seljuq empire.
He was just, so his title also changed. Rondi writes that he was so organized in the court of justice that in his time, oppression became rampant.
If Shaju was rare, someone could cry directly to Malik Shah. Many examples of his justice are mentioned in history. The most brutal and most common is by the army and its officers. But for the fear of Malik Shah, the Slovak army did not have the courage. People roamed his army fearlessly and no soldier dared to rape them.
In order to facilitate the concession, many of the public works carried out the exemption of all types of trade tax in the Kingdom. All countries should build roads in the deserted streets and build bridges over rivers. On the way to Mecca, he set up ponds for ponds and ponds for the storage of water, and set aside scholarships for the cultivation of Haram, during which time Shaykh al-Haram used to collect seven dinars from each pilgrim.
Malik Shah fixed a tax on his compensation and fixed a tax.
During this period knowledge was greatly developed, especially the establishment of the madrasah system in Baghdad and then appointed Imam Ghazali, such as Yuga contemporary scholar, as well as Balkh, Nishapur, Herat, Isfahan, Basra, Mosul, Amal and all the cities of Iraq. I set up madrassas. All students received scholarships. All this was done under the supervision of a competent minister like Nizam-ul-Mulk Tosi.
Which accounted for one-tenth of his income for madrassas.
Malik Shah himself was also a well-known and highly esteemed scholar and intellectual and arbabal kamal. He wrote a journal on the geography of the Slovak government, the most important and worthy of his knowledge of the period. Zach Zach Malik is royal. Named by Hakim Omar Khayyam.
Zach has been secretly published.
Malik Shah was also interested in architecture. He built large buildings and planted gardens in and around the city in his palace, Isfahan.
I also loved the song and the server. A lesson in this series is a remarkable event. Once upon a time, Khush Gul and Hussain listened to Mugina’s song. He is very brother to his voice and appearance.
When the intention of the Sultan came to fruition, Mughina said, “Shaha! It is not well known that Hussein and Jamil’s face became the fuel of fire. There is only one speaking distance between halal and haram. This impressed upon the heart of the Sultan, and he said, ‘You speak the truth and at the same time the judge has called and married. (Ibn Khaliqan vol. II, p. 124)
The Sultan was not only a great lover of hunting, but also a freelancer, and most of his time was spent on this job.
Such a mighty archer was that once a day, seventy deer hunted a dinar in the atonement of every prey. The total number of its victims reaches ten thousand animals. His permanent victim was written. Which was also present in book form later. He established hunting monuments in Arabia, Iraq, Khorasan, Mawranhar, Khuzistan and Isfahan, etc. On the basis of his excellence and virtue, Malik Shah was one of the best sultans of the world. Was from
Nizam Mulk Tosi:
Malik Shah’s Zikr system is not complete without mentioning Malik Malik Malik’s name is Abu Ali Hassan bin Ishaq. He was a great jailer of his time. He was born in Taos around 1017, his father farming. Her financial condition was not good, but she did get education. Hadith Faqah and Arabic gained the highest status.
After graduation, Hakim Balkh held a responsible position in his civil service. Nizam-ul-Mulk gained a lot of respect and fame here because of his natural intelligence. Even Hakim Balkh’s strong recommendation in the service of Prince Al-Arsalan in the last moments of his life resulted in the same recommendation that the prince appointed him his ambassador and when he succeeded the throne, he was given the title of Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Nizam-ul-Mulk was an advanced scholar and a scholar. He hated the atheists and sectarian Ismailia. He believed that they were the worst enemies of the truth of religion, and was praised by Muslim scholars. Friend of the well The scholar was educated. He used to work day and night to maintain law and order in the country. People should be happy and knowledge and religion should be published.
The first important task during the ministry was to establish the madrassa system in Baghdad. In this madrassa which should really be called university.
The fall of the system:
During this period of prosperity and peace, Nizam-ul-Mulk used to spend most of his time with Malik Shah and guide him with useful suggestions.
He also took care of the madrassas he founded in Baghdad, Nishapur and Isfahan.
Nizam-ul-Mulk had twelve sons and all held government positions. The intelligence and the fidelity of this family reminds us of the renowned Burmese family of Iran. The fate of this family was as enormous as it was with the Barmaki family. Many people became jealous over the splendor of Nizam-ul-Mulk’s family, and the supporters conveyed many exaggerated things to the king.
While he was on his way to Hajj along with his family, a fadai at the place of Nahand on the way terminated the Jalil-ul-Qadr scholar with a dagger in his stomach.
Some of the men mentioned also say that the murder took place on the authority of Taj Malik. Who wanted to take the deposed minister out of the way forever and protect himself.
Successor of Malik Shah:
Malik Shah had four sons.
The eldest of them was Barkia Roque, who was then twelve years old. Muhammad was six months younger than that. Sanger was eight years old and the youngest was Mahmood, who was four years old. After the death of Malik Shah, a Turkish woman, who was then in Baghdad. Announces the reign of his four-year-old son Mahmud. The caliph al-Muqtad ۔i obtained relief from the pressure. Burkiah was in Isfahan at the time of his father’s death. So the Turkish woman sent her imprisonment orders. Barkiya was the daughter of Zukida,
the second wife of Roq Malik Shah, but most of the sons of Nizam-ul-Mulk were taken to Ray and crowned. During this period, the Turkish woman captured Isfahan with the help of Majdul Mulk Taj Malik, Abu al-Jaime and Amir Baghra Khan. Burkeiya Roq ordered a military coup on Isfahan. But his troops returned with 500,000 dinars.
Turkey’s female fiancée continues
Now he laid siege to Queen Ismael’s brother Malik Ishmael and persuaded her to marry, hoping that he would attack his nephew, Burkiah Roq. So he raided the ray but had to suffer from mouth injury. After that, the kingdom of Burkia Ruq was announced in Baghdad. The government of Burkia Roq was recognized, but its difficulties were not yet resolved.Central Asia
The troubles of Berkia Roq do not end here, after which his uncle Tutosh (Totash) attacked and imprisoned Jawan Shah and put Isfahan in jail. Mahmud wanted to blindly deprive him of the throne forever. But Mahmud’s age did not subside, and he himself succumbed to measles a week later and disappeared.
Upon this the Imams crowned Barkiya Roq out of prison and crowned the Turkish woman to death.
Berkia Roq attacked Totosh and defeated her and then killed her. After Burkhiyas overcome the difficulties, Khorasan’s government enters Iraq and enters Iraq. Sultan Sanger:Central Asia Sanjar bin Malik Shah was enthroned in 1136 and was named Sultan of Sultan. From this, Sultan Bahram Ghazni paid tribute. When Sultan Alauddin Ghori, where Suz defeated Bahram, conquered Ghaznin. So Sultan Sanjar Seljuqi arrived and arrested Alauddin Ghori.
Three years after Sanjar took over Khorasan’s government, his brother Mohammed raised a rebellion against him. Nizam-ul-Mulk’s son, Moody-ul-Mulk, accompanied Muhammad. Because Burkeia Roque had ousted him from the ministry and made him his enemy.
This is the time of the Slovak period when many members of the royal family and ministers were chosen and killed. Zakida, mother of Burkia Roq, was strangled to death by the behest of Muhammad. Mujaddid Malik, who became the minister after the ouster of Moody-ul-Mulk. Bitter retaliation. Moody-ul-Mulk was sentenced to death by the order of Burkia Roq.
When Burkiah died, her son Malik Shah Sani took over the Iraqi government. But Muhammad attacked him and arrested him and then blindly took over the Iraqi government. When Muhammad died, his son Mahmud died at the age of fourteen. As soon as he was enthroned, he invaded Khorasan, where his powerful uncle, Sanjar, ruled. Sanjar defeated him in the field of Saad, finally giving his daughter to the Iraqi government by marrying his daughter Mahn with his daughter.
The Sultan Sanjar dynasty was the last great ruler of the Sultanate, who ruled for nineteen expeditions during the forty-year reign of King Khorasan. Also, he defeated his nephew Mahmud and became the master of all the power of the Seljuq. In 1130, he attacked Ahmad Khan, the ruler of Mawan, because he had stopped paying tribute. Ahmad Khan was captured and taken to Samarkand.
But after being released he was impressed with his ability and restored it. After this, Bahram Shah Ghaznavi rebelled, which was suppressed.
In 1140 Samarkand revolted again and for six months Sanjar continued the siege and conquered it and occupied Khwarizm on the north.
Sultan Sanger attacks Ghazni:
Bahram Ghaznavi since Sultan Sanjar recognized the leadership of Seljuqi.
So he sent friars from India to Sultan Sanger. Sultan Sanger invaded Ghorzani for the second year and took Alauddin with him. Alauddin Ghori did what he did in Ghazni. He did it with a vengeance. Otherwise he was very intelligent and far-sighted and capable. So a few days later, Sultan Sanjar, being impressed by Alauddin’s ability, freed him and he returned to his homeland and reigned.
Defeat of Sultan Sanger:
Malik Shah gave Anushthagin the Khwarazm or Khiva government in exchange for his services, then his son Qutbuddin Muhammad succeeded him, but the Chinese invaded Karkatai from the region of Turkestan and won a tribute to Qutbuddin. Forced to give. After Qutb-ud-din, his son Utsiz was enthroned. Since Utsez was a judge of the Karakhatis.
Therefore, he invited them to attack Sultan Sanjar at the expense of the time, and together with them he defeated Sultan Sanjar on the banks of the Jihadi river. It was his first defeat. The Karakhatis occupied Maru and Nishapur, and the Utsavs declared an independent state in Khwarizm.
Central Asia Imprisonment of Sultan Sanjar:
In 1152, the Karakhatai tribes conquered Ghazakbil and seized their pastures and pushed them toward Balkh.
Ghazakbil was allowed by Sultan Sanjar to settle in Balkh on the condition that he would send 20,000 sheep as a tribute annually. When it came time to pay tribute, there was some dispute with the ruler of Balkh over the types of sheep. Which ruled Balkh rather than dealt with. Finally, in 1152, Sultan Sanjar had to stage an offensive against the Gaza tribes. The Gaza tribes were terrified and offered to pay ransom.Central Asia
But the ruler of Balkh, Egypt, was punished with terrible punishment. But when the Sultan attacked, Gaza fought bravely that not only defeated the Sultan and imprisoned him but also conquered Mara and Nishapur.
Sultan Sanger’s release and death:
Sultan Sanjar remained in Gaza prison for four years. This prison was like the one that was imprisoned by King Jahangir Mehbat Khan of India.
That is, the Turks would sit Sultan Sanjar on the throne at the time of the day, with his hands resting in front of him, and would close him at night in an iron cuff. The Sultan considered Sanjar as his king, wherever he wished. Once upon a hunt, the Sultan escaped. But when he died, the urge to live in the ruined city that had brought him here went cold.
In this state of sadness, in 1156, at the age of 73, Jahan Fani was welcomed and buried in his tomb. After that, his enthroned Mahmood Khan was enthroned. After that the throne mediator was enthroned. In the end Tashish defeated him and ended the Slovak government. Also in Salaqa, Kerman, Sulajqa, Iraq, Salaqa Rome, Salazah, Syria were the salient streams of small governments.
Atabakan Shiraz:Central Asia
The sultanate sultans who were entrusted with the education and training of their princes were called heroes. Gradually these ministries began to receive ministry, and with the weakening of the family Slovakia, they formed their own sovereign governments in different countries and provinces. As a result, many families of these enthusiasts lived in Syria, Iraq, Persia, and some achieved great renown in the Islamic world.
The Atabakans also call Shiraz’s government a “wealth slugger.”
In the reign of Sultan Sanjar Seljuqi, Muzaffar-ud-din Sankar bin Maudud was the ruler of the Persian Empire. After the death of Sultan Sanjar, he proposed his address strongly and began to rule sovereignty over Persia. Died in 1161 After that his son was enthroned in 1176 and he ruled for twenty years.
His name was Takla. Subsequently, Saad ibn Zangi ruled for 28 years. Died in 1227 In the name of Saad, Saadi retains his surname. After his death, his son Atabik Abu Bakr bin Saad Zingi took the throne. During this period, the destruction of Baghdad by the hands of Halaku Khan came into operation. He took over the Mughals. Then his son Atabak Muhammad sat on the throne. Up to 664 AH, the family ruled Shiraz and Persia and once again became independent in the fall of the Mughals. Then Timori came away.
Khwarizm empire (1157 to 1231 AD)
In the Slavonic period, a new empire of imperial rulers was formed. Which, in fact, was a shameful favor of the Slovak rulers. The achievements of the royal family of Khurism have added a golden chapter to the history of Central Asia. Its founder was a Turkish slave colonel who was a resident of Ghazni. Malik Shah was the butcher of Saljuqi. After that his son Qutbuddin Muhammad likewise became the saint of Sultan Sanjar after Malik Shah.
Sultan Sanjar gave Qutb-ud-din to Khwarazm or Khiva government in exchange for the services of a scribe Whenever he attended the service of Sultan Sanjar, he used to perform all the duties of service in the same royal garb. For a long time, the area was ruled by Khwarizm and Khwarizm Shah became famous.
Then his children became known by the same name.
Central Asia During Qutb-ud-din, the Karakhatis of the region of the Chinese Turkistan region of Khotra rose up and attacked Khorazm.
Qutb-ud-din sent a large army to confront them, but after defeating them, they reconciled with the Qarakhatis on the condition of an annual tribute.
Qutbuddin died in 490 AH. At that time his son Atsuz was holding the office of saintly elder in Sanger’s court. Finally, with the permission of Sultan Sanjar, he came into disgrace.
Utsez was a very intelligent person. He did not want to convince the government of mere malice.
As a result, he rebelled against his master, Mohsin Sultan Sanjar. Sanger led an army and Utsez was captured in a fortress. The name was “Thousand Sp.” Anwari was accompanied by Sultan Sanjar at that time. He called a rabbi whom Sanger had written on an arrow and thrown it into the fort. Rabbi is # king, our land is the best of land Waz Dawat and Iqbal where business is most important Ambrose Back Attack Thousands Spagger !!
Individual malnutrition and centenarians are thousands of years old
At that time Vatav was in the fort with Atsuz.
He replied in the answer to the poem below, and likewise wrote down an arrow and threw it towards the Saljuqi army.
Ghar Khasam to O Shah Shood Rustam
One Thousand Spaces When Sultan Sanjar learned that Watawat had written this poem and threw it, he said that when the fort was conquered, it should be cut into seven pieces. When the fort was conquered, it was necessary to first perform the Watawat, but the present response to Watawat also worked here. he replied. I’m so na ۔ve that I can’t have seven pieces. It is ordered to be cut into two pieces. The king was pleased with his answer and set him free.
Atsuz escaped defeat and Sanjar’s nephew Ghiyasuddin Suleiman Shah ruled Khwarizm. But Sanjar had just arrived that Utsaz returned to Khurram and defeated Ghiyasuddin and took over the government there.
Later the Karakhatis joined and defeated Sanger and declared their sovereignty.
After Utsav, his son Arsalan Shah succeeded the throne. Fighting continued for a long time between him and his brother, Takash Khan. In the year 1172, Takesh Khan prevailed and placed the crown on the royal head. He assassinated Tughral mediator Saljuqi and captured Khorasan and Iraq.
It was attacked by the Abbasid Caliph al-Nasser. Then his son Alauddin Muhammad sat on the throne.Central Asia
Alauddin Muhammad 1200-20:
Ala-ud-din Mohammed, the successor to Tosh, was a very earnest, enthusiastic and knowledgeable worshiper. His life was as troubled as Sanger’s. He greatly expanded his empire. The boundaries of its empire were crossed by India and Baghdad on the one hand and Aral and the Persian Gulf on the other.
It occupied Balkh and Kerman in the north to extend its boundaries, and in the south it planned to hit Karakhatai. Because he was so powerful now, in the first attack, the Karakhatis defeated him tremendously. Aladdin succeeded in taking the western province from Karkhatai with the help of Osman Samarkand and Gucchal the following year to avenge his defeat.
In 1210, he captured Samarkand and killed Osman in rebellion and made Samarkand his capital.Central Asia Ghazni and Ghor Occupation: Alauddin was not convinced of his victories. So he seized Ghazni and Ghor, the Indian province of the Ghori Empire, but the Khalifa al-Nasser wrote to the Ghori prince and fought against Alauddin with the help of the Karakhatis.
Opposition to the Caliphate:
In 1216, Ala-ud-din convened a meeting in Khwarizm (Khiva), in which he issued a decree against the Caliph al-Nasser because he had increased his friendship with enemies against Islam. It is reported that the Caliph al-Nasser surrendered a person and carved a letter in the name of Genghis Khan. That is, the skin was filled with nectar in the skin.
In this strange letter it was written, “Attack Sultan Muhammad and consider us your
sympathizers.” Thus, after waiting for a few days when the letter was written on the shaved head, the hair on his head came up and he was sent to this person. Returned to Genghis Khan. When the man approached Genghis Khan, he said that I was the envoy to the Caliph and that the message of the Caliph was curious to me. Shave my head and read the Caliph’s message.
So the Caliph’s message was read with his head shaved. But Genghis Khan apologized to the envoy that he could not fight indirectly.
When Khwarizm Shah learned of the caliphate’s conspiracy, he strongly intended to destroy the Khilafah Baghdad. He was considered to be the most powerful and powerful Muslim king in continental Asia. The unhappiness between the Abbasid Caliph Nasir and the Khwarizm Shah reached such a point that Khurzim Shah planned to invade Baghdad and made his caliphate Muslim in place of the Caliph.
Shaikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardy arrives at the court:
When Khwarizm Shah intended to ascend, the Caliph sent Hazrat Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardy as ambassador to Khwarizm Shah. Sheikh Mamdoh reached the Sultan’s court and gave a proper speech and advised him to refrain from invading Baghdad. “You are a fan and well-wisher of many Abbasis,” said Khwarizm Shah.
So take you back to Baghdad and I will definitely be attacking Baghdad.
Three Elders Abuse for Malnutrition:Central Asia
When the Shaykh failed to return from there, Khurazm prayed for Shah that “Allah impose the wrongdoers on him.” Khwarizm Shah took the army with him, but on the way there was snow so much that the army was closed and forced. In the world of Kharism, Shah postponed the ascent to the second year and returned on his way.
Accidentally one day, in a mischief, he ordered that Sheikh Mujaduddin be killed. So they were martyred. The next day, when the senses came, they were remorseful of this move and sent blood to the service of Hazrat Sheikh Najmuddin Kabri. will go. People believe that the misconduct of these elders was the result of the disaster on Khwarizm Shah.
After that, Khwarizm Shah could not keep up the victories for long as a new force blew up all his plans.
Central Asia Ghuria Empire
Although the ruling family was a Turkish family belonging to Ghazni in the Ghaznavid regime, Sindh Valley was a cohesive region, despite its foreigners, its dominion remained in that land ie Lahore. With the incoming taxes, the city of Lahore became a great international city.
Not long after the arrival of the Ghoris, the region once again fell under other areas. That is, under the throne of Delhi and all the wealth of the Indus Valley turned to Delhi and its surroundings. Therefore it is important to study the victories of the gurus.
Background of ponds:
The Ghor is not the name of a city but a vast area, located in the eastern part of Herat, in the western central part of Afghanistan.
His ancient name was Ghaur and the present name is Ghaur. No city named Ghor is in Afghanistan but nowhere. In India, the old town of Lucknowti, which was the headquarters of the old province of Bengal, was later called Gore, which became a distorted idea, but this is much later. There is a province (province) in the area of consideration in Afghanistan with its headquarters in Chag Charan. However, there is one city in Ghorak, fifty sixty miles northwest of Kandahar, and the province is out of consideration.
The area under consideration in the Ghaznavid government consisted of Turkish tribes. They were all called ghouri. The Shijra lineage was joined by King Zahak of Iran. Zahak is a Diwmali character who according to Di Mala was the prince of Syria and he defeated Iran’s King Jamshed (also a Diwmali character) and occupied Iran. There were two snakes on Zhahak’s shoulder that ate the lives of two men daily.
Zahak was killed by the blacksmith’s public leadership (his flag which was made of leather), which he wore as an apron… apron… while working on the furnace, called the statement of the fisherman. Now, even if it was in fact the Arab race, the Ghori people were not Turks, while the Ghoris were Turks, who lived in the Gaya Hastan north of the Aral Sea and the Capian Sea, and were called Gaza.
They were also called oghaz. All this is called Ghori. In the time of Hazrat Ali in the Caliphate, the chief of the Ghoriz Turks was a man named Shinst He converted to Islam and at the same time the entire tribe became Musharraf. On the contrary, these people are called the Sunsabi Turk. In the time of Aaron al-Rashid (786 – 808 AD), the leader of the Ghoris was Yahya bin Nahtan. Yahya bin Nahathan bin Darmash bin Parvez bin Shunsib) was the grandson of Yahya.
In comparison, many people were later called Suri when they were Ghoris and Sunsabis.
Suri’s son, Mohammed bin Suri, was a contemporary of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi and did not obey the Sultan. Sultan Mahmud imposed an army on him and imprisoned him – made Ghoristan a province of the Ghaznavi Empire and succeeded Abu bin Ali, son of Muhammad bin Suri. Central Asia
Abu Ali remained loyal to Sultan Mahmud but the people of the Ghor did not like him. Finally, Muhammad’s nephew Abbas overthrew the throne and took over the government. It proved to be the most unjust and unjust ruler. He attacked Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, but was captured by Ghaznavi troops. After Abbas, Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi considered the government handed over to Abbas’s son, Mohammed bin Abbas.
Mohammad probably died soon after, because a few days later his son Qutbuddin Hassan Hakim became a Ghor. Qutbuddin Hassan attacked an enemy and was killed in battle. Now Ghaznavi is directly in control of Ghoristan. Qutbuddin Hassan’s son Sam fled to India. After some time he was returning home with his family, crossing a river, and his boat sank, and all but one of Sam’s sons, Aizaldin, drowned. Leave alone on the return trip.
At first, he was arrested by the soldiers and put in jail. A few days later, the city of Hakim recovered from a disease, and he freed many prisoners, including Aizuddin. Now he left for Ghazni. Now he was caught by robbers on the way. He was included in his group, impressed by his high stature and strong saddle.
The next morning the whole group was captured by Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi’s soldiers and the Sultan ordered the killing of all.
When Ijazuddin Ibrahim believed in his story, he released it and placed it in his court officers. As he progressed, he became the Amir Hajib (Commander Guard). He was also married to the daughter of a senior officer. After the death of Sultan Ibrahim, his son Sultan Masood bin Ibrahim bin Sultan Masood Shaheed Ghaznavi took the throne.
Sultan Masood Sani appointed Izzuddin the ruler of the consideration. The wife of Izauddin Ghauri was Ghaznavi, and by her name she had seven sons, known as Hafiz Akhtar. Their names are:
Malik Fakhruddin Massoud Bamiyan, Qutbuddin Mohammad Damad Bahram Shah Ghaznavi, Shujauddin Ali (Jawanmarg) Nasiruddin Mohammad Hakim province landed Dard, Saifuddin Suri, Bahauddin Sam and Alauddin Hussein Jahan.
Azaduddin remained loyal to Sultan Masood and Sultan Sanjar throughout his life. But then his seven sons split into two groups. One group is called Malok Bamiyan, whose members become the rulers of Takharistan and Bamiyan. These people were also known as Malibata. The second group is known as Malok Ghorzani. The first ruler of this second group was Qutbuddin Mohammad Damad Bahram Shah, also known as Malik al-Jabal.
Qutb-ud-din Mohammed settled a new city, Firuz Koh, dug around it two Kos (six miles), built several forts and built Feroz Koh as its final throne. He planned to attack Ghazni, which was reported to Sultan Bahram Shah Ghaznavi. He summoned her from the shed and arrested her. Then he married his daughter to join him, but then on notice that Qutbuddin Muhammad was plotting.
Sultan Bahram Shah poisoned him in the prison and killed him.
The assassination of Ghaznavi and the Ghauri family, which had been going on since the time of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi, intensified. Qutbuddin’s brother Saifuddin was also in Ghaznavi at that time. He fled to Ghoristan and returned to the throne in Feroz Koh. For the first time among the Ghoris, he took the title of Sultan for himself and was called Sultan Saifuddin Suri.
The former Ghori rulers used to call themselves Malik (ie, Hakim District). The Sultan, the ruler of the kingdom (the king or emperor) did not say (Sultan was also under the Caliph) Sultan Saif-ud-din Suri attacked Ghazni with a large army.
Bahram Shah fled to India after not being attacked by Ghaznavi and thus the city of Ghazni was occupied by Ghoris. Saifuddin himself lived in Ghazni and made his brother Bahauddin Sam ruler of Ghor in Feroz Koh (the same Bahauddin Sam’s son Mohammad Ghauri was the conqueror of India). But Bahram Shah was invited to return.
Bahram Shah came and Ghaznavi together arrested Saifuddin Suri and his minister Mujaddin.
Behram Shah blacked Saif-ud-din Suri, sat on a cow and spread it in the streets of Ghazni city with a large public procession that used to chant slogans against him. As well, women used to ring. Thus, after his military and political defeat, he was subjected to social disgrace.
After all this, Saifuddin Suri and Mujaddin were killed. When Bahauddin Sam, the ruler of Ghor, got the news, he started preparing for the attack, but died of a poisonous ulcer (probably cancer).Central Asia
Now his brother Alauddin Hussein is enthroned, who is remembered as Suz in history. He conquered Ghazni and massacred the men and women in the city and thwarted the city.
The terror continued for seven days. He dug the tombs of all the Ghazni kings and burned their bodies. Only the tombs of Sultan Mahmood, Sultan Masood Shaheed and Sultan Ibrahim were forgiven. This is where Suz gave his brother Bahauddin Sam’s two sons Ghiyas-ud-Din and Shahab-ud-din some territory. Both of them quickly became popular with people because of their superior abilities and generosity.
Realizing the danger, Alauddin imprisoned them in the German fort. Sultan Sanjer conducted a raid on Ala-ud-din and arrested him. For a long time he was in prison. In the end, Sultan Sanjar took pity and restored it to the government, but shortly after 551 AH (1156 AD) Alauddin died. Sultan Mohammad Ghauri
Ala-ud-din where his son Saifuddin Mohammed came to power after the swelling.
He freed his two cousins, Ghiyasuddin and Shahabuddin, and re-appointed the ruler of these areas. Where he was the first ruler. The angel wrote the name of the area Sanger. A few days later, Saifuddin Mohammad was killed by a soldier of his own, fighting against Ghazni. Now Ghiyas-ud-Din Mohammad Feroz reached Koh. He took over the empire and made his younger brother Shahabuddin Mohammed the commander of his forces.
History is in the blessed royalty that Ghiyas-ud-Din gave Muhammad Ghauri the territory of Tekabad in Jagir. Tecnabad is also written in the old source Taginabad. The town was located between Ghazni and Ghoristan. In this period, the gurus often had two names. One was a religious title or title, and the other was changed with the title or promotion of the title.
So the names of these two brothers were Muhammad. However, the religious address was the first of Shamsuddin, and then came to power and he took the title of Ghiyasuddin, while the younger was Shahabuddin. Since Shahabuddin was the commander of the army, he launched attacks on India at a time when he was addressing Shahabuddin. This is why most ancient Indian historians such as the angel and others have always written it Shahabuddin Ghori.
But the fact is that when Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad occupied Ghazni and appointed Shahab-ud-din Muhammad as the ruler of Ghazni, he gave Shahabuddin the address of Muzaleedin. As if his name was Matsuddin Mohammad Ghori. In this background, his full name is Sultan Shahabuddin Moazuddin Mohammad Ghori, son of Bahauddin Sam Ghori. He is known as Sultan Mohammad Ghauri.
Sultan Muhammad Ghauri made his first attack on the Indus Valley in 572 AH (1176 AD). At the time of the Ghauri invasion, Ghaznavi’s power was confined to remote areas of Sindh and to Lahore and its surroundings. In fact, the whole of Pakistan was divided into different regional unities. Most of these places were ruled by the Turks and Afghan rulers, and some were local Hindu kings.
The area of Peshawar, however, obeyed Ghaznavids.
The old source states that the state was ruled by Muratis. In fact, it was the Ismaili Shia who re-entered power after the death of Sultan Mahmud. In the meantime there was a Bhatti Rajput ruled by a Hindu Raja. Sindh was ruled by the whole family. Muhammad Ghori’s real success was that he established a government in Delhi, conquering not only the Indus Valley but also the central areas of present-day India.
Thus the valley fell under the throne of Delhi. The most important battles of Ghauri also took place in Indian territories, namely the field of the river, which is fourteen miles from Nasser. Here Ghauri fought two important wars and crushed the war machinery of the Hindu feudal kings forever. On return, the Khokhars martyred in 1206.