Chile history and culture
Chile history and culture A young nation that looks forward to the future as well as a strong history – it follows in the footsteps of the early inhabitants of the continent, who lived here 12,500 years ago.
Chile’s history is generally divided into twelve periods, the first of which begins with the early inhabitants of the region that constitutes this vast country today.
The Spanish rts date from approximately 800 BC until the arrival of the Spanish colonies, which corresponds to the history of the various American Indian groups in the area. European exploration of the subcontinent began in 1492. Fernando Magalines and his expedition were the first Europeans to arrive in Chile
, Crossing the narrow strait that is today called 1520.
The period of independence began with the overthrow of the Spanish governor’s government in 1810, and ended in 1823 with the deportation of Bernardo Higgins, the leader of the free republic. This year was marked by a number of new independent leaders solving problems and numerous battles against them.
Those loyal to the Spanish Crown who briefly regained control of the area before it was finally defeated. Once independence was assured, the Chilean state’s organizational period went from 1823 to 1830. During this period three different governments and two constituencies were observed.
The period between 1831 and 1861 is known as the Orthodox Republican era. This commitment was marked by the implementation of the Constitution of 1833, established by the Diego Portals and their strong, central government. Despite numerous attempts at rebellion, the institution remained stable and the country created a prosperous economy.
The Liberal era of the Republic lasted three decades, from 1861 to 1981, and its characterization was largely political stability and an extension of both the North and South.
The civil war of 1891 resulted in the formation of a parliamentary republic that would continue until the constitution of 1925. During this time, Congress dominated politics and the president became a symbolic figure devoid of power. During these years the country became increasingly urban and the first workers’ unions were formed.
The then presidential republic began with the Constitution of 1825 and continued until the 1973 military coup. During this period, three parties dominated politics: fundamentalists, Christian democracies and socialists. During this period, several state-owned companies were formed, eventually leading to the victory of leftist ideology and the victory of the Socialist Party in elections.
After the September 11, 1973 uprising, which overthrew the democratically elected President Salvador Allende, an authoritarian military government, led by General Augusto Pinochet, ruled the country. Thousands of political opponents were arrested, tortured or killed, including numerous killings outside the country, while many were deported or condemned. With the help of the Chicago Boys, Pinochet introduced a policy of liberal economic theory and a new constitution was adopted in 1980.
Finally, the transition to democracy began in 1990 with the inauguration of President Patricio Eileen. In 2006, Michelle Bachelet became the first woman to hold the country’s highest office. Then, in 2010, Sebastiسٹn Pereira became the first right-wing president to be democratically elected after 1958. After that, Michelle Bachelet returned to the presidency in 2014.