Cuba history and culture
Cuba history and culture of important events 1492 – Navigator Christopher Columbus claims Cuba for Spain. 1511 – The Spanish conquest begins under the leadership of Diego de Vilazquez, who founded Barakoh and other settlements.
1526 – Slave imports start from Africa
1762 – Havana is captured by a British army under the command of Adolf George Pok and Lord Albermal.
1763 – Treaty returns to Havana Spain via Paris.
Wars of freedom
1868-78 – The ten-year war ended in a war that Spain promised to reform and promise greater sovereignty.
1886 – Slavery abolished.
1895-98 – Jose Marty leads the Second War of Independence. The United States declares war against Spain.
1898 – The United States defeats Spain, which withdrew all claims from Cuba and extradited it to the United States.
1902 – Cuba is elected President with Tomas Estrada Palma. However, the plot amendment protects the island in the US and gives the United States the right to interfere with Cuba’s affairs.
1906-09 – Estrada resigns and the United States occupies Cuba after a coup led by Jose Miguel Gomez.
1909 – Jose Miguel Gomez becomes president after the US-supervised election, but he is soon subjected to corruption.
1912 – US forces return to Cuba to end black protests against discrimination.
1924 – Gerardo Machado takes vigorous steps to advance mining, agriculture and public works, but has since established a brutal dictatorship.
1925 – founded the Socialist Party, which formed the basis of the Communist Party.
1933 – Fishplates are overthrown in rebellion led by Sergeant Flangesio Batista.
1934 – The United States relinquishes its right to interfere in Cuba’s internal affairs, revises the Cuban sugar quota, and changes tariffs in favor of Cuba.
1944 – Batista Ri Air and civilian Ramon Grae honors after San Martin.
1952 – Batista again seizes power and presides over a repressive and corrupt government.
1953 – Fidel Castro leads a failed uprising against the Batista government.
1956 – Castro landed in eastern Cuba from Mexico and reached the mountains of the Sierra Maestra, where, with the help of Ernesto “Chi” Guevara, he fought a guerrilla war.
1958 – US withdraws military aid to Batista
Victory of the Revolution
1959 – Castro leads a 9,000-strong guerrilla army in Havana, forcing Batista to escape. Castro became prime minister, his brother, Raul, his deputy, and Guevara became the third commander.
1960 – All businesses in the United States of America are nationalized in Cuba without payment.
1961 – Washington disconnects all diplomatic relations with Havana.
The US sponsored a vicious attack by the Cuban exile in the Gulf of Pigs. Castro declared Cuba a communist state and began an alliance with the Soviet Union.
1962 – Cuba’s missile crisis flares up when, fearing an American invasion, Castro agrees to allow the Soviet Union to deploy nuclear missiles on the island. The crisis was then resolved when the USSR agreed to withdraw the missiles in exchange for the withdrawal of US nuclear missiles from Turkey.
The Organization of the United States (OAS) suspended Cuba for following Marxism-Leninism.
1965 – Cuba’s only political party renames the Communist Party of Cuba.
1972 – Cuba becomes a full member of the Soviet-based Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
Intervention in Africa
1976 – The Cuban Communist Party approves a new socialist constitution. Castro was elected president.
1976-81 – Cuba sends troops first to help Angola’s leftist MPLA to counter a joint attack by South Africa, the unit and the FNLA, and later, the Ethiopian government sends Eritreans and Somalis Helped defeat
1980 – Some 125,000 Cubans, most of them freed criminals, flee to the United States.
1982 – Cuba, together with other Latin American states, provides moral support to Argentina in its dispute with the United Kingdom about the Falkland Islands.
1988 – Cuba agrees to withdraw its troops from Angola following an agreement with South Africa.
Living without the USSR
1991 – Soviet military adviser departs from Cuba after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
1993 – The United States tightens its sanctions on Cuba, which makes some market corrections to prevent its economy from deteriorating. These include the legalization of the US dollar, the conversion of many state farms into semi-autonomous cooperatives, and the legalization of limited individual private businesses.
1994 – Cuba signs an agreement with the United States, in which the United States agrees to surrender 20,000 Cubans a year in exchange for preventing the emergence of asylum seekers.
1996 – Cuban Miami lifts US trade embargo in response to the shooting of two US aircraft operated by Cuban exiles.
1998 – Pope John Paul II visits Cuba.
1998 – US eases ban on Cuban Americans sending money to relatives
1999 November. Cuban child Allen Gonzalez was abducted off the Florida coast after a boat in which his mother, stepfather, and others tried to escape from American occupation. A major Cuban-based expat campaign in Miami is launched to prevent Allen from joining his father in Cuba and to stay with relatives in Miami.
June 2000. After prolonged court battles, Allen was allowed to join his father in Cuba.
October 2000. US House of Representatives approves the sale of food and medicine in Cuba
December 2000 – Russian President Vladimir Putin visits Cuba and signs agreements aimed at fostering bilateral relations.
October 2001 – Cuba criticizes Russia’s decision to close the Lord’s Radio Electronic Center on the island, saying President Putin as a “special gift” to US President George W. Bush ahead of a meeting between the two. Decided.
2001 November – American food is exported to Cuba for the first time in more than 40 years, following a request from the Cuban government to deal with a hurricane crisis.
Spotlight on Guantanamo
January 2002 – Detainees detained during a US-led operation in Afghanistan have been sent to Guantanamo Bay for interrogation as al-Qaeda suspects.
January 2002. Russia’s last Cuban military base, the Lords, closed.
April 2002 – Diplomatic crisis after UN Human Rights Commission criticizes Cuban rights record once again. The resolution is sponsored by Uruguay and endorsed by several former Cuban allies, including Mexico. Uruguay’s relationship with Cuba was cut off when Castro says it was a US threat.
May 2002 – U.S. Secretary of State John Bolton accuses Cuba of trying to develop biological weapons, which puts Washington in the list of Washington’s “axes of evil.”
May 2002. Former US President Jimmy Carter visited the well, including a visit to scientific centers in response to US allegations of biological weapons. Carter is the first ex-serviceman to visit Cuba after the 1959 revolution.
June 2002. The National Assembly amended the constitution to make the government’s socialist system permanent and untouchable. Castro called for a vote after criticizing US President George W. Bush.
The victims were jailed
March 2003 to April – Action against “Black Spring” against opponents has drawn international condemnation. 75 people have been sentenced to up to 28 years in prison. Three men abducted on a plane trying to reach the United States were hanged.
June 2003 – EU stops high-level official visits to Cuba to protest the country’s recent human rights record.
2004 April. The UN Human Rights Commission has banned Cuba from recording its rights. The Cuban Foreign Minister called the resolution – approved by a vote – “ridiculous.”
2004 May. US sanctions banned US – Cuban family visits and receiving cash from foreigners.
October 2004 – President Castro announces a ban on transactions in the US dollar, and imposes a 10% tax on the dollar currency conversion.
2005 January. Havana says it is resuming diplomatic relations with the frozen EU after the crackdown on violent people in 2003.
May 2005 – Nearly 200 opponents rally by organizers about the first such gathering since the 1959 revolution.
2005 July – Hurricane Dennis widespread catastrophe, killing 16 people
February 2006 – As a result of the propaganda war in Havana, President Castro unveils a monument that defies the ideology of enlightened messages – some of them on human rights – that are embedded in the building of the American mission.
June 2008 – Plans to abandon pay equality announced The move is seen as a departure from the radical Marxist economic principles celebrated after the 1959 revolution.
The European Union lifted diplomatic sanctions imposed on Cuba in non-violence in 2003.
July 2008. In an effort to promote backward food production in Cuba and reduce dependence on food imports, the government eases restrictions on the amount of land available to private growers.
September 2008 – Hurricanes Gustavo and Ikea do the most damage to Cuba’s recorded history, destroying 200,000 homeless and their crops.
October 2008 – The state oil company says the beach is estimated at 20 billion barrels, which is double the previous estimate.
The European Union restored relations.
Relations with Russia resurface
November 2008 – Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visits The two countries agree on a new trade and economic agreement in the context of strengthening relations. Raul Castro made a mutual visit to Russia in January 2009.
Chinese President Hu Jintao went on a visit to sign trade and investment agreements, including a deal to continue Cuban nickel and sugar purchase.
December 2008 – Russian warships visit Havana for the first time since the end of the Cold War.
The government says 2008 was the most difficult year for the economy since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Growth rate increased to about 4.3%.
March 2009 – Two prominent individuals of the Fidel era, Cabinet Secretary Carlos Liege and Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque, resign after admitting “mistakes.” Changes to the first government after Fidel Castro’s resignation.
The US Congress voted to end the Bush administration’s sanctions on Cuban Americans coming to Havana and sending money back.
April 2009 – US President Barack Obama says he wants a fresh start from Cuba.
Measures of crisis
May 2009 – Government launches simplicity program to try to reduce energy use and end the effects of the global financial crisis.
June 2009 – The Organization of the United States of America (OAS) votes in 1962 to lift the ban on Cuban membership. Cuba welcomed the decision, but said it had no plans to rejoin it.
July 2009 – Cuba signs an agreement with Russia that allows Gulf oil exploration in the Cuban waters of Mexico.
February 2010. Political prisoner Orlando Zapata Tamayo died on hunger strike 85 days later.
May 2010. Demonstrations of wives and mothers of political prisoners are allowed after the intervention by the Archbishop of Havana, Jim Ortiga.
July 2010. President Castro agreed to release 52 opponents under a treaty between the church and Spain. Many go into exile.
September 2010 – Fundamentals of large-scale government job cuts to revive the economy. Analysts see the proposal as one of the biggest changes in the private sector since the 1959 revolution.
January 2011. US President Barack Obama eases restrictions on Cuban travel Havana says the measures don’t go too far.
March 2011. In 2003, two political prisoners detained during the crackdown were released.
Accumulation of correction speed
April 2011 – The Communist Party of Congress says it will consider the possibility of allowing Cuban citizens to travel abroad as tourists.
August 2011. The National Assembly approved economic reforms aimed at promoting private business and reducing state bureaucracy.
November 2011 – Cuba passes a law allowing people to buy and sell privately for the first time in 50 years.
December 2011 – Authorities release 2,500 inmates as part of a pardon before the pope’s visit, some of which involve political crimes.
March 2012. Pope Benedict visited, criticized the US trade embargo on Cuba and called for greater rights to the island.
April 2012 – Good Friday is celebrated for the first time in Cuba with a religious holiday in 1959, followed by the identification of religious holidays.
June 2012. Cuba re-imposes customs duty on all food imports to prevent the sale of food aid sent to the foreign trade market. Import duties were released in 2008 after severe hurricanes.
October 2012 – Spanish politician Angel Cermeiro is jailed for massacre over the death of Catholic dissident Oswaldo Pia. Mr Camaro was driving the car when, according to authorities, it hit a tree. Mr Pea’s family says the car was hit by a road after he received death threats.
The government eliminates the need for citizens to purchase expensive exit permits while traveling abroad. High-ability professionals such as doctors, engineers and scientists will still need permission to travel to prevent brain drains.
November 2012 – Hurricane Sandy hits the eastern province of Santiago, President Raul Castro says, killing 11 people and damaging more than 188,000 homes. According to a UN report, Sandy destroyed about 100 million hectares of land.
Raul’s second term
February 2013. Rawal Castro re-elected as National Assembly He says he will stand at the end of his second term in 2018, by which time he will be 86 years old.
July 2013. Five well-known politicians, including Fidel Castro’s ally and former parliament leader Ricardo Alcorn, have been removed from the Central Committee of the Communist Party, calling President Raul Castro a “normal replacement”.
January 2014 – The first phase of the deepwater maritime port opens in Brazil and Cuba plans to invest extraordinary foreign investment in the island, Mariel.
March 2014 – Cuba agrees with an EU invitation to start talks on human rights progress, restoring relations and promoting economic relations. The European Union suspended relations in 1996.
July 2014 – Russian President Vladimir Putin says on a visit to Latin America, Moscow will cancel Cuba’s billions of dollars of debt from the Soviet era.
Chinese President Xi Jinping signs a bilateral agreement.
September / October 2014 – Cuba sends hundreds of frontline medical personnel to West African countries affected by the Ebola epidemic.
Talks with the United States
December 2014 – In a surprising development, US President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raul Castro announced the move to normalize diplomatic relations between the two countries for more than 50 years.
January 2015. Washington eased some travel and trade restrictions on Cuba.
In Havana, the two-day historic talks were held between the United States and Cuba, in which both sides agreed to meet again. The talks are focused on restoring diplomatic relations but no date has been set for reopening the embassy in both countries.
President Raul Castro has called on President Obama to use his executive powers to ignore Congress and end US economic sanctions on Cuba.
February 2015. Cuba and US diplomats say they have made talks in Washington to restore full ties.
May 2015. Cuba has established banking relations with the United States, which excludes the country from the list of terrorist-sponsored states.
July 2015. Cuba and the United States reopen their embassies and exchange charges.
December 2015 – Cuba and US officials hold preliminary talks on bilateral compensation.
January 2016. The United States eased several trade sanctions with Cuba.
March 2016. Cuba and the European Union agreed to normalize relations.
US President Barack Obama traveled to Cuba for the first time during his 88 years there.
May 2016. Cuba took steps to legalize small and medium-sized businesses as part of economic reforms.
The death of Fidel Castro
2016 November – Fidel Castro, former president and Cuban revolution leader, died at the age of 90. Cuba announces nine-day national mourning
January 2017 – Washington rolls out a long-standing policy that gives Cuban immigrants the right to stay in the United States without a visa.
June 2017 US President Donald Trump eliminated some aspects of President Barack Obama’s policy on Cuba, disrupting relations between the two countries.
October 2017 – Diplomatic alignment of mysterious voice attacks that are said to have affected the health of US and Canadian embassy staff in Havana.
April 2018 – After the Castro family’s six decades of rule have ended, senior Communist Party expert Miguel Diaz – Canel becomes president.