Czech republic history and culture
Czech republic history and culture The Czech Republic was the western part of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Federative Republic. In the formation of a common state after the First World War (October 28, 1918), the Czechs, Moravians, and Slovaks remained united for almost 75 years. On January 1, 1993, the two republics split up and formed two separate states.
In 1620 the Czech Mountains lost their national independence from the Hexburg Empire in the Battle of the White Mountains and ruled the Austrian kingdom for the next 300 years. With the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I, President of the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson, among others, encouraged, creating Czechoslovakia an independent country.
Despite cultural differences, Slovaks exchanged similar wishes with Czechs for independence from the state of Hexburg and voluntarily united with Czechs. For historical reasons, the Slovaks were not at the same level of economic and technological development as Czechs, but the independence and opportunity found in Czechoslovakia enabled them to overcome this inequality. However, the vacuum was never fully bridged, and the coalition played a permanent role in the union’s 75 years.
Although Czechoslovakia was the only Eastern European country to remain a parliamentary republic from 1918 to 1938, it suffered from minority issues, most important of which concerns the country’s large German population. With more than 22% of the international state’s population and focusing mostly on the Bohemia and Moravian border areas (Sudanland), members of that minority, including some, sympathized with Nazi Germany. Thi, damaged the new Czechoslovak state. Internal and external pressure came to an end in September 1938 when France and Britain staged Nazi pressure in Munich and agreed to force Czechoslovakia to extradite to Germany in Sudan.
Completing Hitler’s aggressive design on all Czechoslovakia, Germany invaded Bohemia and the rest of Moravia in March 1939, establishing a German “Protectorate”. By that time, Slovakia had already declared independence and had become a German puppet state. Hچchler’s occupation of Czech lands was a clear betrayal of the Munich Treaty and still carries sentimentality in Czech society in modern society, but at that time it was quietly resisted. Nazi aggression was felt by Czech Jews and other minorities who were surrounded and deported to concentration camps in organized waves. In 1939 there were more than 100,000 Jews in the Czech mainland. After the Holocaust in 1945, only several thousand remained or returned.
By the end of World War II, the Soviet army occupied most of Slovakia, Moravia, and most of Bohemia, including Prague. In May 1945, US forces liberated Plze۔ and most of western Bohemia. In May 1945 a civilian uprising against the German army in Prague took place. After Germany surrendered, about 2. 2.9 million ethnic Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia following the approval of the Allies under twenty decrees.
After the war reunited, Czechs and Slovaks held national elections for the spring of 1946. Democratic elements, led by President Edward Bains, hoped that the Soviet Union would allow Czechoslovakia the freedom to choose its own government and express its desire for Czechoslovakia. Will act as a bridge between East and West. The Czechoslovak Communist Party, which garnered 38% of the vote, held most of the key positions in the government and gradually succeeded in neutralizing or silencing the anti-Communist forces. Although the Communist-led government initially intended to participate in the Marshall Plan, Moscow forced it to retreat. Under the legal status quo, in February 1948 the Communist Party seized power.
After extensive cleansing of Stalinist style in other Eastern European states, the Communist Party tested 14 of its former leaders in November 1952 and sentenced 11 to death. For more than a decade thereafter, the Communist political structure in Czechoslovakia was characterized by the conscience of the leadership of the party’s chief, Antonin Novotny.
The 1968 Soviet Invasion
In the early 1960s, the Communist leadership allowed central reforms, but dissatisfaction took place within the Communist Party’s central committee, leading to economic reforms, resistance to cultural liberalization, and the desire of the Slovaks within the leadership. Causing dissatisfaction. For maximum independence for their republic. He expressed his dissatisfaction with the leadership of the party in January 1968 and the removal of the notary from the presidency in March. In his place, Slovakian, Alexander Dubcek appointed party leader.
After January 1968, the Dobsic leadership took practical steps toward political, social and economic reforms. In addition, it called for political, military changes to the Soviet-majority Warsaw Pact and the Council for Mutual Assistance. The leadership reaffirmed its loyalty to the Socialism and Warsaw Pact but also expressed its desire to improve relations with all countries of the world irrespective of the social system. Czech republic history and culture
In a program adopted in April 1968, guidelines were laid down for modern, humanitarian socialist democracy that would guarantee, among other things, religion, journalism, meetings, speech, and freedom of travel. A program that, in Dubsic’s words, would give socialism “a human face.” After less than 20 years of public participation, the population gradually began to take an interest in government, and Dubcek became a truly popular national figure.
Internal reforms of the Dobsic leadership and foreign policy statements have raised serious concerns in some other Warsaw Pact governments. On the night of August 20, 1968, Soviet, Hungarian, Bulgarian, East German, and Polish troops invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovak government immediately. He declared that the army was not called in the country and that the attack was a violation of socialist principles, international law and the UN Charter.
The original Czechoslovak reformers were forcibly and secretly taken to the Soviet Union. Clearly under Soviet solidarity, they were forced to sign a treaty that facilitated an indefinite “temporary stay” of the Soviet Army in Czechoslovakia. Dubcek was removed from the party’s first secretaryship on April 17, 1969, and replaced by another Slovak, Gustav Hasak. Later, Dubcek and many of his allies within the party were stripped of their party positions, which continued until 1971 and reduced party membership by almost one third.
The 1970s and 1980s came to be known as the “normalization” era, in which those who apologized for the Soviet invasion of 1968 prevented their opposition to their conservative government as much as possible. Political, social and economic life became stagnant. The population, encouraged by “normalization,” was calm.
Czech republic history and culture The Velvet Revolution
The roots of the Civic Forum movement that came to power during the “Velvet Revolution” in 1989 are rooted in human rights activities. On January 1, 1977, more than 250 human rights activists signed a Charter 77 Charter, which called on the government to fail to enforce human rights provisions of the document, including its own constitution. Was criticized. International Covenant on Political, Civil, Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights; and the last act of the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Although not truly organized, the Charter 77 signatures constitute a citizen’s initiative, which aims to fulfill the Czechoslovak government’s formal obligation to respect the human rights of its citizens.
On November 17, 1989, Communist police violently demolished the peaceful pro-democracy demonstration and brutally killed several student participants. In the days that followed, Charter 77 and other groups united to form the Civic Forum, an umbrella group that champions bureaucratic reform and civil liberties. Its leader was controversial playwright Vaclav Havel. After deliberately giving the “party” label negative connotations during the previous regime, the Civic Forum quickly gained support for millions of checks, as did its Slovak counterpart, Against Public Violence. ۔
Faced with great popular notoriety, the Communist Party all but collapsed. Its leaders, Hussein and party chief Milos Jacques, resigned in December 1989, and Havel was elected president of Czechoslovakia on December 29. Part of the surprising acceleration of these events was due to the unpopularity of the Communist government and changes in its policies. Soviet Guarantor, with a rapid and effective organization of mass movements with a public opposition. Czech republic history and culture
A coalition government, consisting of a minority of Communist Party ministerial posts, was formed in December 1989. The first free elections in Czechoslovakia after 1946 were held without incident in June 1990, and more than 95% of the population voted. As expected, the Civic Forum and public violence have won overwhelming victories in their respective republics and won a comfortable majority in the federal parliament. Parliament has taken all measures to achieve the democratic evolution of Czechoslovakia. It successfully led to fair local elections in November 1990, ensuring radical change at the county and city level.
However, the Civic Forum found that although it had successfully accomplished its primary goal – the collapse of the Communist government – it was ineffective as a governing party. The Civic regarded the death of the forum as the most urgent and inevitable.
By the end of the 1990s, non-governmental parliamentary “clubs” had come up with separate political agendas. The most influential was the Civic Democratic Party, headed by Rusk Klaus, who later became Prime Minister. Other notable parties that emerged after the split were the Czech Democratic Party, the Civic Movement, and the Civic Democratic Alliance.
By 1992, Slovaks demanded more and more sovereignty, which effectively halted the day-to-day work of the federal government. In the June 1992 election, Klaus’s Civic Democratic Party won hands-on on a platform of economic reform on Czech soil. Vladimir Makiyar’s Movement for Democracy Slovakia emerged as an important party in Slovakia, calling for justice for Slovak’s demands for independence. Like Havel, the Federalists were unable to keep up with this distribution trend. In July 1992, President Havel resigned. At the end of 1992, Klaus and Makiyar reached an agreement that by the end of the year the two republics would go their separate routes.
The members of the Federal Parliament, divided with the National Parliament, cooperated well to formally pass a law separating the two countries. This law was passed on December 27, 1992. On January 1, 1993, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic laid the foundations simultaneously and peacefully.
Despite occasional disputes over the division of federal property and the rule on the border, relations between the two states have remained peaceful. Both states were immediately recognized by the US and their European neighbors.