Djibouti history and culture
Djibouti history and culture The Republic of Djibouti gained its independence on June 27, 1977. It is a successor to French Somali land (later known as the French Territory Office and the Asos), formed in the first half of the 19th century as a result of French interest. In the Horn of Africa, however, the history of Djibouti, which is recorded in the poems and songs of his nomadic people, dates back thousands of years to the time when the Djibouti skinned the scents and spices of ancient Egypt, India and China. And what was the bargain of the skins? Through close contact with the Arabian Peninsula for more than a thousand years, the Somali and Afar tribes in the region became the first to embrace Islam.
It was discovered in Rocht de Haricourt’s Schwa (1839-42) that began a French interest in the African coasts of the Pacific. Henry Lambert, French Consular Agent in Eden, and Captain Florette de Langley signed a friendship and cooperation between the Sultans of France and Raheeta, Tadjora and Gobad, from which the French bought the anchor of Obak (1862). General Chat Chat Lounge
Against the backdrop of British activity in Egypt and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1879, French interests in the area increased. In 1884-85, France expanded its patronage to cover the Gulf and the coast of Somalia. The defenses established by Emperor Menelik II of France and Ethiopia in 1897 were confirmed by agreements with Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1945 and 1954.
In 1892 the administrative capital was transferred from Obak to Djibouti. In 1896, Djibouti was named French Somaliland. Djibouti, which has a good harbor and ready access to the mountains of Ethiopia, attracted commercial convoys crossing the Somali settlers from East Africa as well as the South. The Franco-Ethiopian Railway, connecting Djibouti to the heart of Ethiopia, began in 1897 and reached Addis Ababa in June 1917, further facilitating trade growth.
During the Italian invasion and occupation of Ethiopia in the 1930s and during World War II, there was a border confrontation between French and Italian forces. The area was ruled by the French (from the fall of France until December 1942), and during that period it remained under British siege. Done – A local battalion from Djibouti participated in the French independence in 1944.
On July 22, 1957, the colony was reorganized to give the people sufficient sovereignty. That same day, a decree enforcing the Overseas Reform Act (Louis Cadre) of June 23, 1956, established a regional assembly that elected eight of its members to the Executive Council. The members of the Executive Council were responsible for one or more regional services and served as Minister. The Council advised the French-appointed Governor-General.
In the September 1958 constitutional referendum, French Somaliland chose to join the French community as an overseas territory. Under the Act there is a danger of representing a deputy and a senator in the French parliament, and an adviser in the French Union Assembly.
The first elections to the regional assembly were held on November 23, 1958, under the system of proportional representation. In the next assembly elections (1963), a new electoral law was enacted. Representation of the direct majority vote was abolished on the basis of lists submitted by political parties in the seven designated districts. Ali Arif Borhan, allegedly of Turkish origin, was elected to be the president of the Executive Council. The French President Charles de Gaulle’s visit to Djibouti in August 1966 gave the Somalis a two-day public protest demanding independence. On September 21, 1966, Louis Saget, the governor-general of the area after the protests, announced the decision of the French government’s referendum to determine whether the people would remain within the French Republic or be liberated. In March 1967, 60% chose to continue their territorial affiliation with France.
In July of that year, a guide from Paris formally changed the name of the region to the French territory of Afshar and Essas. The directive also organized the region’s official structure, making the senior French representative, the former governor general, a high commissioner. In addition, with nine members, the Executive Council was re-designated as the Council of Government.
In 1975, the French government began to meet the growing insistence on independence. In June 1976, the area’s citizenship law, which favored the Afar minority, was amended to more closely reflect the weight of Somali. Voters voted for independence in the May 1977 referendum. Djibouti, the Republic, was founded on June 27, 1977, and Hassan became the first president of the Gold Updates country. In 1981, he was once again elected president of Djibouti. He was re-elected, unopposed, for the second 6-year term in April 1987 and the third 6-year term in the May 1993 multi-party elections.
In early 1992, the Constitution allowed four political parties to legalize for a period of 10 years, after which a complete multi-faceted system would be established. At the time of the December 1992 National Assembly elections, only three had qualified. He was the Rasbalament Populier Le Progres (Rally for People’s Development), the only legislative party from 1981 to 1992. The party duo Renew Democratic (Party for Democratic Renewal – PRD); and the Party National Democratic (National Democratic Party – PND). Only the RPP and the PRD contested the National Assembly elections, and the PND withdrew its claim that there were too many unanswered questions about holding elections and many opportunities for official fraud. In all 65 National Assembly seats, the RPP won, less than 50% of the voting votes.
In early November 1991, civil war broke out in Djibouti between the government and a predominantly Afar rebel group, the Front for Rehabilitation Alliance and Democracy (FRUD). The FRUD signed a peace agreement with the government in December 1994, ending the conflict. Two FRUD members were made a cabinet member, and in the 1999 presidential election, the FRUD campaigned for the support of the RPP.
In 1999, President Ismail Omar Galia – President Hassan Glad was the chief of staff at UpDeNon, the head of security, and the key adviser for more than 20 years. , Was elected as the RPP candidate. He received 74 percent of the vote, while the other 26 percent went to the opposition candidate for the United Djiboutien Opposition (ODU), Musa Ahmed Idris. For the first time since independence, no group has boycotted the elections. Musa Ahmad Idrees and ODU later challenged the elections based on “irregularities” and the claim that “foreigners” voted in different districts of the capital. However, observers, both internationally and locally, generally regarded the election as fair, citing only minor technical difficulties. Ismail Omar Galia took oath on May 8, 1999, as the second president of the Republic of Djibouti, which backed an alliance between the RPP and the government-recognized part of the government-run FRUD.
In February 2000, another branch of the FRUD signed a peace agreement with the government. On May 12, 2001, President Ismail Omar Galia presided over the agreement, in which the final peace deal was officially terminated by a decade-long civil war between the government and the FRUD’s armed faction. The peace agreement successfully completed the peace process that began on February 7, 2000 in Paris. Ahmad Dini Ahmed represented the FRUD.