History of Eritrea
Eritrea is an ancient name, formerly associated with its Greek form Eritra í (Greek alphabet), and the Latin form derived from it is Eritrea. In the past, Eritrea gave its name to the Pacific Ocean, then it was called Eritrean summit.
Eritrea officially celebrated its independence on May 24, 1993. Prior to the Italian colonies in 1885, what is now Eritrea formed a government ruled by various local or international powers, which once dominated the Pacific Ocean. In 1896, the Italians used Ethiopia as a springboard for a devastating attempt to conquer Ethiopia.
After the Italian surrender in World War II, Eritrea was placed under British military administration. In 1952, a UN resolution on Eritrea was implemented with Ethiopia. The Eritrean requests for independence were ignored in the resolution, but Eritreans were guaranteed some democratic rights and to some degree sovereignty. Soon after the federation came into effect, these rights violations or violations began.
In 1962, Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean parliament and annexed the country, leading to the Eritrean fight for independence. The battle continued in 1974 following the end of the uprising of Haile Selassie. The new Ethiopian government, known as the Darg, was a Marxist military flag headed by Mengistu Haile Maryam.
During the 1960s, the Eritrean Liberation Front was led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). In 1970, members of this group collapsed, and one group separated from the ELF and formed the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF). By the end of the 1970s, the APLF had become a strong armed Eritrean faction against the Ethiopian government, and the leader of the Aesis affair emerged. Most of the material used to counter Ethiopia was captured by the Ethiopian army.
By 1977, the EPLF prepared Ethiopia to expel Eritrea. However, the same year, Ethiopia was able to retake the Ethiopian army with a massive Soviet weapons aircraft and force the EPLF to retreat to the bush. Between 1978 and 1986, Derg
Launched eight major rumors against freedom of movement – all failed. In 1988, the EPLF seized the headquarters of Ethiopia’s military headquarters in northeastern Eritrea, prompting Ethiopian troops to withdraw from their military bases in western Eritrea. Subsequently, the APLF fighters moved into position around Karen, the second largest city in Eritrea. Meanwhile, other conflicting movements were advancing in Ethiopia.
In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union informed Mengistu that it would not renew its defense and cooperation agreement. With the withdrawal of Soviet support and logistics, the Ethiopian army’s morale subsided, and the EPLF – and other Ethiopian rebel forces – began to move to Ethiopian positions.
During the months leading up to the end of the Mengisto regime in May 1991, the United States played a facilitating role in peace talks in Washington. In mid-May, Mengistu resigned as head of the Ethiopian government and deported to Zimbabwe, leaving the caretaker government in Addis Ababa. After defeating Ethiopian forces in Eritrea, the EPLF forces took control of their homeland. Later that month, the United States chaired the talks in London to formalize the end of the war. The talks were attended by four major militant groups, including the EPLF.
There was also a high-level American delegation that formed the interim government in Ethiopia for the July 1 to 1991 conference in Addis Ababa. The EPLF attended the July conference as an observer and spoke to the new interim government regarding Eritrea’s relations with Eritrea. The result of these negotiations was an agreement in which the Ethiopian people recognized Eritrean’s right to have a referendum on independence.
Although some EPLF cadres at one time supported the Marxist ideology, Soviet support for the Magento had cooled their sentiment. The collapse of the Communist regimes in the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc led them to believe that this was a failed system. The EPLF now says it is committed to establishing a democratic-style government and a free market economy in Eritrea. The United States and the United States agreed to provide support to both Ethiopia and Eritrea, subject to continued progress toward democracy and human rights.
In May 1991, the EPLF established the Interim Government of Eritrea (PGE) to hold Eritrea affairs until a referendum on independence was held and a permanent government was established. EPLF leader Esias became the head of the PGE, and the APLF Central Committee continued to serve as its legislative body.
On April 23-25, 1993, Eritrean voted overwhelmingly for independence from Ethiopia in a free and fair UN-supervised referendum. Eritrean authorities April 27 declared Eritrea an independent state. The government was restructured and after a national, freely contested election, the National Assembly, which elected Asias as president of the PSE, increased the APLF and the non-APLF. Both members were added. The EPLF reinstated itself as a political party, the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), and is now in the process of drafting a new constitution and forming a permanent government.
In 1998, a border dispute with Ethiopia led to the Ethiopian-Eritrean war, which killed thousands of soldiers from both countries and left Eritrea with major economic and social pressure, which largely transformed the population. Displacement, economic growth declined, and Africa’s most serious crisis land mines ended this frontier with a negotiating agreement in 2002 known as the Algiers Agreement. One of the terms of this agreement was the
establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation, known as the United Nations Mission in Eritrea and Ethiopia. As of August 2004, more than 4,000 UN peacekeepers remain. Another term of the Algiers Treaty was the final demarcation of the disputed border area between Eritrea and Ethiopia. After extensive study, an independent, UN-affiliated Ethiopian-Eritrean Boundary Commission (EEBC) issued a final border order in 2003, but its decision was rejected by Ethiopia. Until 2004, the border question was subject to conflict, while temporary peace remained. De: Geschichte Eritreas