History of Iceland
History of Iceland Ultima Thule a land in the north
Iceland is responsible for the discovery of the Greek explorer Pythias, who made an epic journey around North Western Europe around 325 BC. He mentioned an earth, Ultima bag, or the farthest farther north, six days’ north of Britain and traveling near a frozen sea. He also described the phenomenon of the midnight sun. Iceland is shown by the name of Thule on later medieval maps.
The first permanent settler of Iceland was Ingleford Arnarsson, a wealthy and influential Norwegian chieftain who emigrated to Iceland in 874. Together with his wife, the Hویlvig Fredettiیرre, he built a house in a place he named Reykjav ۔k.
Most of Iceland’s first settlers came from Western Norway, but some from other Scandinavian countries came from the Viking Age settlements in the British Isles. The settlers who came from Norway were mainly large farmers and powerful warlords who were dissatisfied with the excesses of King Herald First. He traveled in open boats with his family, relatives.
The serfs and cattle settled in the lower areas along the coast where they could farm. They set up large farms and defended themselves mostly by raising livestock and fishing. According to the earliest Icelandic sources, when the Irish settlers arrived, some Irish monks were living in Ireland, but they immediately. They left.
Initially there was no central administration or government, but the early settlers continued the traditions of Norwegian laws and district assemblies, headed by Sardar (Gujar). These local assemblies were held regularly each spring and fall.
- In the parliament of Iceland, the First Alang Xi (Tuthang) was later established on the fields known as Inang Velayer (Tung Weiler) and according to the constitution of the Norwegian constitution, a constitution was adopted for the whole country. Was.
Both the Legislature and the Judiciary Assembly were anything but and it continued in Midsummer for 14 days annually. This law was compiled, revised and amended by the Law Council comprising the Council and its advisors. The Law Council chose a speaker whose job it was to memorize and cite the law. (The rules of everything were not written until 1117-8 AD). Every Gopi (chieftain) was required to participate in the reading of the rules.
The first gathering in 930 marks the beginning of the free republic. This period of rule is called the Icelandic Commonwealth Pueblo or the Free State. The golden age of Iceland
The period from 930–1030 is known as Saga Age, because many events actually recorded later (in the 12th and 13th centuries) in Icelandic towns. In addition, many important events related to the sagas took place in Thang Velayar. It was also in Thang Velayar in 999 or 1000 that Christianity was adopted in Iceland.
The first bishop in Iceland was founded in 1082 in Skulholt, and the second bishop was established in 1106 in Halar. John Agundson, the first bishop of Hilaar, wishing to erase all the signs of unbelievers, succeeded in changing the names of the weekdays, named after the pagan gods. Thus, Tosdagger, after Tr (Tuesday), Instagram, after them (Wednesday), after Arsagar, Fur (Gross), and after Friezdagger, Frig (Fred): “Third Day” (Arijodagor), “Midweek Day.” “(My Weekdogger),” The Fifth Day “(Femtodagor) and” Fast Day “(Festudugur). He also forbade dance and love poems.
The 1120s-1230s, a wonderful period of writing, was a period of notable literary achievements. During this time most Icelandic stories were written, in addition to great historical works: the Sleeping Book and the Hemskrangela. Slingingbeck, the first national history, was written around 1130 by Eric Argelson (Torjelson), known as Frey-Armitage (1067-1148). The Ham screenplay (The History of Norwegian Kings) was written by Sunvory Storlsson (1179-1241).
Year 1220 marks the beginning of “the time of Storlings” – the beginning of the Storlingield. This was the period of internal conflict in Iceland, and the last independent period of Iceland was about 400 years as an independent state. Sterling’s were a very powerful family. He was also the author of the classic Icelandic saga. The most famous of these was Snorri Sturluson. Through weddings and political alliances, the Stirlings dominated much of the country, but were opposed by other nobles and influential families.
The prolonged conflict between power and the struggle for power created economic and social ruin. At that time, the Norwegian king Heiken Hikonarsen (King Haikon IV) was trying to expand his influence in Iceland as he made part of his campaign to unite all the settlements of the Viking Age of Norway. Many of Iceland’s major chieftains became kings’
lords, while the support of King Hakone’s rival Earl Scully lost the support of Sunwari Storlsson. Were. In 1241, at the instigation of King Haiken, Annioret Storlanson was killed in the Reicholt. Finally, 1262-1264, the chiefs of Iceland were partially agreed to pledge allegiance to King Hakone IV of Norway on the hope that they would establish peace in the country. The end of the Commonwealth of Iceland is 1262.
Iceland under foreign law
Under the auspices of Norway, Icelanders continued to rely on Norwegian ships for supplies, which often failed to arrive. After that the period of great hardship and desolation was gone. The snow often blocked fjords and sea routes. Violent volcanoes, recurring pestilence, and famine destroyed the entire country. In 1349, the Black Death damaged Norway, which cut off all trade and logistics.
In 1380 the Kingdom of Norway formed an alliance with Denmark. However, this change did not affect Iceland’s status. When the Klemer Union was formed between Sweden, Norway and Denmark in 1397, Iceland came under the mighty Danish crown. The situation in the country worsened. Iceland chiefs were replaced by Danish royal officials. Everything became a court of justice. The royal officers were chosen by the judges.
In the beginning of the 15th century, 1402-1404, Black Death affected Iceland, killing more than a third of the population. During the period 1540-1550, Lutheranism was imposed on Iceland by the decree of the King of Denmark, and the first Lutheran bishop was installed at Skluthal. Opposition to reform in Iceland ended in 1550 when the last Catholic Bishop John Arson was beheaded.
In 1602 Denmark established a trade monopoly, forbidding Iceland to trade with any country other than Denmark, triggering a period of severe unrest. Monopoly continued until 1787. The Danish pact also strengthened its hold on the constitutional level on the island. In 1662, the king of Denmark inherited power, absolute sovereignty was imposed in Iceland, and the power of everything decreased significantly.
In the 18th century in Iceland there was a tragic period of population decline, rising poverty and natural disasters. When the first census of Iceland was made in 1703, the population at that time was 50,366 and 20% were helpless. After the smallpox outbreak in 1707, about 18,000 people were killed. Natural disasters and famines have resulted in a population decline and reduced to less than 40,000 during this century. The Katala volcano erupted in 1735 and the devastating locale exploded in 1783 (floodgates), causing floods, ash and poisonous fumes, and subsequently killed 10,000 people with hunger.
In 1800 the ailing was dissolved by royal decree and was later replaced by the Supreme Court. However, by the middle of the nineteenth century a new national consciousness was restored in Iceland, and John Sigursson (Jon Sigurdsson) had become the great leader of the Icelandic independence movement. In 1843 Alting was re-established as a consulting firm,
but only a few powerful landlords were elected overseas and landlords. When King Frederick VIII of Denmark relinquished its absolute power in 1848, it also raised the question of the status of Iceland in the new form of government. John Sigourson’s position was that the king could only give Iceland his full sovereignty over the people of Iceland, since he was the one who withdrew from Denmark in 1662. In addition, Iceland originally entered into an alliance with Norway as an independent state with some rights under the Treaty of 1262-1264.
In 1854, Denmark’s monopoly of trade ended, and Iceland finally gained full independence from trade. Freedom of the press was established in 1855. In 1874, a thousand-year settlement was organized and King Christian IX of Denmark visited Iceland. It introduced a new constitution to Iceland, authorizing alterations in internal affairs. In 1904 the constitution was amended, and Iceland received the home rule under Denmark. Iceland’s first minister was established in Reykjavik.
The Home Rule of Sovereignty
The years of domestic rule (1904-1918) characterized development in the economic and social sectors, as Iceland’s struggle for greater sovereignty continued. On December 1, 1918, Iceland became a sovereign state, the Kingdom of Iceland, in personal alliance with the King of Denmark.
In the 1930s, events were held in Thang Velayar to celebrate the Thousands themselves. It was the first general celebration of Icelanders, attended by a significant proportion of the country. An estimated 30,000-40,000 people were present.
In 1944, Iceland terminated its alliance with Denmark.
On June 17, 1944, the Republic of Iceland was founded in Thong Velar, the national location of Iceland. June 17 was chosen because it is the birthday of Iceland national hero John Sigourson, “Iceland’s aspiring child, his honor, the sword and the shield.”