history of Kazakhstan
The geographical and geographical political position of Kazakhstan has played an important role in promoting the country’s development. Located in the center of Eurasia, Kazakhstan is at the crossroads of the world’s ancient civilizations and trade routes. It has been the land of social, economic, and cultural exchange between the eastern and western, northern and southern, and major Eurasian nations. At different stages of its history, different states have emerged, and have contributed to the land that has become Kazakhstan today.
A thousand years before the Christian era, the nomadic Skytian – Saka civilization flourished in Central Asian areas. Many of their cultural monuments have survived, including inspirational tools and everyday objects made in gold and bronze from the ancient burial ground. Another estimate, the royal tomb of the Golden Warrior Prince of the Saka civilization, was found in the ancient town of Ore and is known for its integrity, beauty, elegance and craftsmanship. In Almaty in the early 1990s, these cultural treasures have become the basis for a modern monument to freedom.
In later centuries, the Huns were home to a powerful state, whose empire greatly influenced the geographical political map of the time. In fact, the Great Roman Empire was eventually destroyed by the firing of the brave warriors of Attila H ۔n.
Later, the Huns were replaced by the Turkish tribes who founded several large states called Cagnat, which stretched from the Yellow Sea in the east to the Black Sea in the west. These states were distinguished by a progressive culture, not only based on the nomadic economy, but also on an oasis urban culture with rich traditions of trade and craftsmanship. During that time, cities and caravanseries were established on the streets of Central Asia, the land of South Kazakhstan, and in Central Asia, and they stood along the famous trade route known as the Silk Road. Known to Europe and China. The route of the Aral and Southern Ural along the Sierra River, as well as the Siegel Road from the southwestern regions of Siberia to Central Kazakhstan and the Altai region, was also very important. The Middle East and Europe were provided with expensive goods by trade on Siebel Road. The major cities and trading centers along these routes included Otar (Farab), Taraz, Kulan, and Yasi (Turkestan).
Collaboration in science and culture
Not only did the Great Silk Road stimulate the development of trade, it also became a source of new scientific and cultural ideas. For example, the great philosopher al-Farabi (870-950) was largely influenced by the culture of trade routes. Born in Farab District, Al-Farabi was called “Second Teacher” after Aristotle for his deep exploration of philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and music theory.
In the 11th century, Mahmud Kashgari, a prominent scholar of Turkish jurisprudence, created a dictionary of three dictionaries of Turkish language, devoted to the heritage of Turkish language and literature. At the same time, Joseph Balsagoni, a renowned poet and philosopher from Blasgun, wrote the Cotaglio Blaig (a knowledge that brings happiness), which is thought to play an important role in the development of many modern ideas, including sociology and ethics. Have paid.
Part of the cultural heritage of the era is beautiful urban architecture. Some of the saved examples are the tombs of Aryan Baba and Sufi Hoja Akhmat Yasai in Turkey.
In addition, the region’s oldest nomads invented yogurt, a dome-shaped portable house that was made of wood and felt, which is ideal for a travel life.
Years later, in 1221, the Mongol tribes of Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and incorporated their culture and values into the region’s increasingly complex society.
By the second half of the fifteenth century, people in the Central Asian region had begun to stabilize. Derived from a variety of ethnic and cultural identities, this process was developed through a shared global perspective and lifestyle. The first Kazakh mines came to the fore, and by the first half of the sixteenth century, the formation of a single Kazakh nation was complete. In the old Turkish language, the word “Kazakh” meant “free” or “free,” who were properly praising those who were yearning for their free state.
Governance and independence
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the nomadic Ginger tribes, directed by the Chinese bogans, began waging widespread war against the Kazakhstan. Fortunately, the people survived full grip and physical annihilation because of the courage of the “thugs” (knights) and the decisiveness of the Kazakh leader, Ibl Khan.
Kazakhstan could never completely recover from the war, nor could it establish itself as a powerful military force. Therefore, they sought the protection of the Russian Empire and in 1871 lost their sovereignty. For a time, Kazakhstan’s destiny was tied to the Russian state and its people, as well as the European model of social development.
After the Revolution of 1917, Soviet power was established in Kazakhstan, and people suffered a lot. Due to forced gatherings in the 1930s, hunger led to the deaths of 1.5 million Kazakhs, more than 40 percent of the nation’s population. Many survivors fled to China, while others, most of them gifted intellectuals, were suppressed by the Soviet government and often killed. As a protest, Kazakhstan took to the streets on December 17, 1986, signaling to the world that the once-powerful Soviet Union was nearing its end.
Five years later, Kazakhstan declared its independence on December 16, 1991, and Norsultan Nazarbayev was democratically elected the country’s first president.