history of Kuwait
History of Kuwait:The early beginnings of Kuwait date back to the early 17th century, which was then known as Al-Qureen. It was published in a Dutch map in the middle of the seventeenth century, depicting the oldest known map depicting the Koran in the present day. At the time, it was under the control of Khalid’s house, which dominated the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The name Kuwait, derived from the Kot (fort), came to the fore when Khalid, the Sheikh of Barak’s house, built it as a summer house in Al-Qureen in the late 17th century. In the century, several tribes of the Al-Ainzaya tribe migrated from the Najd, their homeland, to the famine in Central Arabia, and then settled in a small village in Kuwait. With the weakening of the rule of Khalid’s house, Sabah emerged as the dominant tribe, and officially established in 1752 as the ruler of Kuwait. These new settlers got together to build a wealthy merchant empire, whose economic prosperity was based on fishing, pearls, and trade.
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Sabah mastered such tactics that it was necessary for a small property to remain with powerful Saudi, Rashidi, and Ottoman neighbors. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, the growing fear of Ottoman influence forced Sheikh Mubarak Sabah or the “Mubarak Great” (r.1896-1915) to enter into an agreement with Britain, which effectively protected Kuwait’s British protectorate. Established as a.
Under the Treaty of 1899, Kuwait retained control of its internal affairs, while Britain assumed responsibility for the country’s security and foreign relations. The UK also provided advisors to the country’s most innovative bureaucracy staff. Another British heritage is the borders of Kuwait, which were established in 1913 and 1922 under treaties. Iraq confirmed its border with Kuwait in 1932 in a petition to give the League of Nations membership as an independent state.
In the mid-1930s work began on the development of Kuwait’s petroleum industry, the foundation of the country’s modern prosperity.
The first invasion of oil occurred in Kuwait in 1938, but the industry’s development was interrupted by World War II. By 1945, large-scale drilling machines resumed, and crude oil trading began in June 1946. Oil production and income increased sharply, leading to a dramatic expansion of the entire economy. Until the 1960s, Kuwait enjoyed a level of economic development that made it one of the richest states in the world on a per capita basis.
On June 19, 1961, Kuwait gained full independence from Britain. Iraq initially denied Kuwait’s independence and threatened to annex its neighbor, falsely accusing Kuwait of ever being part of Iraq. Iraqi military threats resulted in the deployment of British troops, which was soon replaced by an Arab League force and the crisis ended. Kuwait became a member of the United Nations in 1963, and later that year, Iraq agreed to relinquish its threats and to recognize Kuwait’s independence and borders in the treaty of the two governments (though there were border clashes in 1973).
Kuwait: The Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, the terrorist attacks in Kuwait City, and the worldwide oil crisis and the economic hardship caused by the collapse of the country’s non-governmental stock market, Saq al-Mankh, in 1982. The stability of the shaking. Kuwait’s sovereignty and permanent existence were in serious jeopardy when Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, claiming that Kuwait had refused to reduce its oil production and provided Iraq with economics. Is hurting Many Kuwaitis were forced to flee Saudi Arabia and other countries. In Saudi Arabia, Kuwait established a government in exile. As an international coalition of 30 states led by the United States, Iraq prepared to reverse the occupation, Iraq declared that it had annexed Kuwait, and claimed that Kuwait had historically been part of Iraq. Is. The Iraqis were forcibly expelled on February 26, 1991, at the end of Operation Desert Storm. Iraqi troops looted homes and businesses after their departure, and severely damaged Kuwait’s oil industry and environment, burning 742 of its 1,080 wells and allowing crude oil. Flowing in the desert and the sea. They also took thousands of Kuwaiti prisoners with them.
In November 1994, Iraq formally accepted Kuwait’s sovereignty, as well as the UN-designated border. Nevertheless, Iraq has provided only partial compensation for property and environmental damage during the occupation, and has refused to comply with US resolutions, saying that Iraq should repatriate all prisoners of war. ۔ Eight years after the liberation of Kuwait, 5605 prisoners of war (707070 of which are Kuwaiti citizens) are imprisoned in Iraq, many of whom were abducted from their homes or left on the streets during Iraqi occupation. Was arrested sequentially.
Ten percent of the oil revenues were put into trust by law, called the Future Generation Fund, to prepare for Kuwait’s massive oil reserves day. Political agendas also have women’s rights: In May 1999, Umair ruled that women would vote for the first time in the general election in 2003 and could contest, but Parliament rejected the law. That same year, Kuwait once again saw the center of the world, when a large number of American and British troops gathered in the UAE in preparation for the invasion of Iraq. As a result, Islamist groups won the parliamentary elections later this year.
Mines in Kuwait:
Today, many resources are being used to remove land mines and eliminate environmental damage from Iraqi retreat, up to US $ 95.9 billion in subsidies through the United Nations.
In Kuwait, the open desert areas are contaminated with land mines and most survive the Uganda Ordinance (UXO) remaining after the Gulf War of 1990-1991. In addition, parts of the desert and coastal islands are used for military exercises, including UXO. The most important of these areas is on the outskirts of Eledira and its surroundings and on the island of Boobyan. In early 2003, land mines and UXOs were discovered in Siberia, northeast Kuwait.
Kuwait destroyed 28,262 pieces of various types of ammunition between January and December 2003, approximately equaling 134.3 metric tons with an area of 154.6 square kilometers. These include: 15 anti-personnel mines, five anti-vehicle mines, 133 cluster bomb subunits (22 BLU / 63, 60 MQ-118 Rocky, and 51 M42 DPICM), 6,788. Grenades, 3,032 RPGs, 6,810 small arms ammunition items, 57 40 mm mortar bombs, 1,889 60 mm mortar bombs, and 1,279 82 mm mortar bombs.  On May 4, 2004, MK was discovered by a private dominoing company operating in the western part of the island of Bubian. 188 Rocky Supplement.
Between March 21 and December 20, 2002, 39 land mines (32 anti-personnel land mines and seven anti-vehicle mines) were detected and destroyed in oil fields in various parts of the country, including Wafra, Abdalia, Kubad and Salimi. ۔
Between February 20, 2001 and February 20, 2002, 25 anti-personnel land mines and 11 anti-vehicle mines were cleared and destroyed.
In 2000, an estimated 250 anti-personnel and anti-vehicle mines were cleared.
From the end of the conflict in 1991 to the end of December 2002, mines and mines disposal teams in Kuwait discovered and destroyed 10.18 metric tonnes of anti-personnel mines and 6.57 metric tons of anti-vehicle mines.
Under the black cover of crude oil, tar mats and oil droplets in the oil field areas of Kuwait, mines and various types of UXO are hidden, covering about seven percent of the country’s surface area. The pollution resulted from a fire in an oil well in January and February 1991. An unknown quantity of mines and UXOs are hidden in some areas of the country, especially along the natural sand passages. A large number of anti-personnel mines also appear to be hidden in the mud-busting flats of the Kuwaiti Gulf.
From July to August 2003, Kuwait’s Ministry of Defense conducted a UXO clearance program for scientific research projects (such as soil sampling), along with oil lakes, in small strips. The program cleared about 66.6 hectares of land. The crew also included the Kuwaiti Ministry of Defense’s explosive ordinance clearance personnel, four to six Bangladeshi personnel, including FERES 1.1 ordinance locators. The Environmental Chemical Corporation provided a senior explosive ordinance disposal technician project manager to perform quality assurance, and also assisted in the development and implementation of UXO clearance procedures and UXO identification. The clearance team found evidence of the UXO, which included parts of a rocket-propelled grenade and a rocket-propelled grenade motor, as well as three large bomb pieces under dry oil contamination.