history of Nigeria
history of Nigeria originated from the axes of ancient civilizations, kingdoms, and kingdoms. The area’s human dwelling dates back to 11,000 BC, and evidence of the earliest metal artifacts was found on the Taronga. The Nook culture, known for its terracotta sculpture, settled on this site during the first century BC. After the 11th century, the Hausa kingdoms and the Borneo Empire continued to develop in the north through slavery, ivory, and other commodities. The Yoruba people dominated southwestern Nigeria until the 14th century and founded the Oyo Empire,
which achieved high levels of political and cultural development. The Edo people established the Benin Empire on the coast of Nigeria during the middle of the 15th century. The Portuguese explorer arrived in Lagos in 1472. Portugal, Spain, Britain, and France built ports and engaged in the slave trade with Nigeria from the 16th to the 18th centuries. In 1809, under the leadership of Usman Dan Fodio, the Fulani Crusaders conquered the northern Hosni states and established a single Islamic state, the Sokoto Caliphate. The Oyo Empire collapsed after the Fulani invasion in 1835–36. The Sokoto caliphate, in turn, fell into the hands of British troops in 1903, and Britain officially declared Nigeria’s colony and protectorate in 1914.
After World War II, the efforts of nationalists intensified. Britain took control, and Nigeria declared independence in 1960. The multi-party system of the new government was increasingly divided among Muslims, Christians and the country’s dominant ethnic groups of Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo residents. Initially a constitutional monarchy, Nigeria was a member of the British Commonwealth and adopted the Constitution in 1963. Adikwei, the Governor-General of the National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon (NCNC), became the first President of Nigeria. He was abolished in a platoon of rebellion in 1966, followed by a war with the eastern separatist state of Biafra. Despite a brief return to democracy from 1979 to 1983, military rule remained intact in 1998, when General Abdul Salami Abubakar was elected. People’s Democratic Party (PDP) candidate Olusegun Obasanjo won the presidency and was re-elected in 2007. His successor from the PDP, Amwariyar Udua, died in 2010 due to illness. Gadelik Jonathan, Vice President of Yar’Adu, became head of state but in recent years has been forced to deal with serious problems with Islamic terrorism in the north. In the March 2015 elections, Muhammad Bukhari was elected Chief of State.