history of Panama
History of Panama Relations
There has been a special relationship between Panama and the United States over the years. On November 6, 1903, the United States recognized Panama as a state after Panama announced its separation from Colombia. On November 13, 1903, diplomatic relations were established.
In November 1903, just days after the Declaration of Independence, the United States and Panama signed a Grass-Banu-Versailles Agreement, stating in their Article II that the Canal Zone was granted to the United States permanently. Yes, it was a strip 5 miles on each side of the Panama Canal, in which the interstate canal could be built, managed, strengthened and defended.
Consequently, on November 3, 1959, the “Operation Autonomy” was led by deputy Akeleno Bide and Dr. Ernesto Castelroo, inviting the Panamanian people to enter the Canal Zone peacefully, as a process There was a Panamanian flag. Reaffirmed sovereignty
President Dwight Eisenhower then conceded that the Panama flag should be hoisted along with the American flag, but the decision was ignored, leading to a cheery-Kennedy agreement to offer such a viable solution to the conflict. ۔
In 1963, the governor of the canal region announced the raising of both flags in the canal area, but this fact was ignored altogether, causing dissatisfaction among the Panamanian people.
On January 9, 1964, American students at Balboa High School raised a United States flag in front of the campus, with the Panamint flag, in rebellion against US officials in the Canal Zone.
At Balboa High School, Panamanian students were welcomed by zone police, and by a crowd of students and adults. After negotiations between Panamanian students and the police, a small group was allowed to reach the flagpole, while the police kept the crowd away.
During the debate, the Panamanian flag was broken into pieces. Meanwhile, protesters began breaking down the fence that separated the canal zone from the Republic of Panama. After continuous valleys of tear gas, zone police began firing on the fence advisers or breakers.
These catastrophic events left a dark pitch in our history and resulted in a decisive framework for Panama’s right to sovereignty, including decisions by then-President Rudolfo Chiari, who was diplomatic with the United States. It was a historic decision to break the relationship.
The diplomatic relations between Panama and the United States were re-established on 3 April 1964 through a joint declaration by Moreno Bunker.
History of Panama In October 1968, a group of soldiers overthrew President Arnulfo Irias Madrid and took over, which led to changes in the country’s foreign policy. Subsequently, Panama assumes its role as an independent country and embarks on an aggressive and active diplomatic campaign in front of major international organizations and forums (the UN Organization (UN) and the Non-Aligned Movement). As a result of this diplomatic process, it is possible that for the first time, the United Nations Security Council (1973) will meet outside its headquarters in New York, and there will be a landmark and remote resolution in support of this independent claim. Panama in the United States
Later, in view of the complicated negotiations, the Tech-Kissinger Agreement was signed on February 7, 1974. This agreement is based on the guidelines that will be followed in the subsequent negotiations which will lead to the so-called Torgues Carter agreements.
History of Panama At the end of the difficult and complex negotiation process, on September 7, 1977, Gorgeous Carter signed agreements, which laid down the basic rules for the joint operation of the Canal until 1999 and guaranteed its permanent neutrality in the headquarters of the Organization of States. Were. In the US (OAS) city of Washington, DC, with the presence of regional leaders and prominent figures in international politics. Panama was represented by General Omar Torguez Herrera and the United States by then-President Jimmy Carter.
The Panama Canal Agreements went into effect on October 1, 1979. He replaced all other treaties on the Bannu-Verla Treaty of 1903 and the Panama Canal, which were in force to date. This agreement is a basic contract that governs a contract to guarantee the permanent neutrality of the canal (contract neutrality) from October 1, 1979, to December 31, 1999 (the Panama Canal Agreement).
The Panama Canal Agreement states the operation of the United States and the details of the canal defense’s implementation in separate agreements. The Panama Canal Zone and its government ceased to exist when the treaty came into operation and Panama took full control of the canal zone areas and its functions, completed on December 31, 1999, when its total Understood. Jurisdiction and operational control over the canal.
Currently, diplomatic relations between Panama and the United States of America are based on mutual respect, focusing primarily on bilateral cooperation on trade matters and hemispheric security.