history of Peru
Most of Peru’s coast is dry desert, but many of its valleys have been fed by icy rivers and rivers flowing from the western slopes of the Indies. Between the beaches and the mountains, these valleys nourished the early human settlements in Peru and South America. Other cultures flourish in the Andean Mountains and in the Amazon.
The list of ancient Peruvian civilizations is long and includes (by development):
Norte Chico Kerala-Soapé, El Parao, Chn, Paracas, Mocha, Nazca, Tehanaco, Hair, Chemi, Inc. There are also long cultural groups (which were not formed by the states but sometimes influenced by them), two main groups which are Kuchua and Aymara as well as other smaller groups.
In the areas of agricultural technology, weaving, pottery, gold, and silver, many of the developments attributed to their empire can be traced back to previous cultures.
Prior to Peru, no Colombian culture developed a written system, but they abandoned the arts, temples, and infrastructure such as roads, terraces, and irrigation sources.
Before their empire became an empire, they migrated to the fertile> Cusco Valley. Manko-Capek became their first king at some point in the 11th century. But it was not until 1438, during the reign of Pachacitec, that the empire began to spread widely, with new territories incorporated by conquest, repression, or unity. Machu Picchu was built in 1450 as a royal estate for Pachacotec and its descendants.
By 1500, Tahitian was spread north to Chile, near Quito near present Ecuador, east to the Pacific, east to the Amazon, and south to Santiago to Chile. A wide road network called Qahaqq (Royal Road) enabled communication and resource distribution. Sapa Inca was most revered as the Son of the Sun. The conquered people were obliged to pay tribute and tribute to the royal capital in Cisco. He, with the civil war between the brothers Hosker and Atahualpa, formed the context that greeted the arrival of Spanish conquistadors on the beaches of Peru in the 1530s.
Conquest and Spanish colonial period
In 1532, under the leadership of Francesco Pizarro, Spanish troops descended on Peru and gold with the intention of conquering the Empire, and so did the Hernan Courts overthrow the Aztec Empire (1519-21). In 1532 Pizarro planned to capture Athalupa in Cajamarca and then executed his king. Finally, in November 1533, the Spanish army arrived at Casco and installed Manko Inca Yupnicki (son of Huناa-Capek) as a puppet ruler.
In 1535, Pizarro established the city of Lima as the capital of its newly conquered territories. In Cisco, Manco Inc fled and occupied the siege of Cusco, which continued for several months but eventually failed. After winning a major defensive battle at Olanteitumbo in 1537, Manko Inca retreated to the Welcombe outpost in the depths of the forest. Where the state of Neo-Anka remained until 1572.
In 1541, Pizarro was assassinated in Lima by his former colleague Diego Almagro. In 1542, Spain created the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of South America except Brazil.
European disease outbreaks led to a dramatic decline in Peru’s indigenous population during the early colonial period. They were also subjected to religious evangelical efforts and the demands of a small, newly formed working class of European landowners.
In 1569, the Viceroy Francisco arrived in Toledo to manage the colony. He launched a wide-ranging reform that facilitated the exploitation of indigenous peoples for the next two hundred years.
In the 1700s, the Bourbon Reform sought to restore the Spanish Crown Pact to the ancestry of the Karella elite born of ancestors and to increase power. But the effect was to spur freedom movements in the Spanish colonies.
For the majority of the people of Peru, there were some changes in independence. The political and economic positions of power were still monopolized by a minority of the Spanish-born elite. Slavery was not abolished until 1845, as part of a reform set up by President Ramon Castilla, which also included the construction of the railway system. In addition, alliances exports revived the city’s treasures and provided funds for the construction of public buildings, bazaars, hospitals, and prisons.
In 1873, Peru joined Chile and Bolivia in the battle of the Pacific, each claiming nitrate-rich lands in the northern Atat کےma Desert. The war ended in 1883, but not long after Chilean troops invaded and occupied the capital city of Lima.
At the end of the 20th century, Lima enjoyed another era of wealth and prosperity. During this time, Lima’s most famous buildings were erected, often in a youthful, neoclassical manner that mimicked the early colonial period. Highways were built to connect coastal settlements such as My Flores and Rainco.
In the middle of the twentieth century, Peru was involved in political and economic turmoil with democratic governments and alternate periods of military dictatorship. It was also the period of urban migration from the countryside, which was mainly towards Lima, resulting in integrated population explosions in the capital. During this time, other major cities such as Archipelago and Kasuku expanded.
In 1990, Alberto Fujimori was partially elected president in response to decades of political corruption and the rise of violent guerrilla movements such as the Shining Path (Sandro Luminoso). Shining Path leader, Abigail Guzman, was arrested in 1992. Although many followers believed that the president’s widespread colonial reforms had begun during a period of stability, Fujimori fled to Japan in 2000 to escape allegations of bribery and human rights abuses. He was later extradited and jailed.
In the 21st century, Peru enjoyed a long period of political and economic stability. In 2019, Peru’s population is estimated at 32.5 million. About 30% (or 9.7 million) of this population lives in Lima.