history of the Philippines
history of the Philippines Beginning of the Peninsula (1)
Some fifty million years ago, the peninsula was created by a volcanic eruption. About 30,000 years ago, the early settlers arrived in the Asian mainland, probably on land bridges built during the Ice Age. By the tenth century CE, coastal villagers welcomed Chinese trade and settlers, followed by Muslim traders from Borneo. The early inhabitants of the Philippines were Mongoloid descent, which is important today. The spread of Islam from Borneo to the central and northern islands was prevented by the arrival of Spanish Christians.
Discovery of the Philippines through the West and the Revolution (2)
The Philippines was claimed in Spain by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer who emigrated to Spain in 1521, which named the island after King Philip II of Spain. Then they were called Los Philippines. By the 1830s Spanish culture and ideas had entered Filipino culture to such an extent that the Filipino people began to think about independence from Spain. The Spanish government promoted Philippine agriculture to the extent that it was self-sufficient.
After some attempts at independence and an equal number of atrocities by Spain, Filipino nationalists began to speak. The most famous person at the time was Jose Regal. He studied medicine at Saint Thomas University in the Philippines and Madrid University. Rijal wrote two important novels depicting the ruins of Spanish rule. Although the books were banned, they were smuggled into the Philippines and read widely. On the night of his execution, December 30, 1896, Rizal declared the Philippines “Pearl of the Eastern Seas”. His death is commemorated on December 30 every year.
Rizal’s execution sparked a revolution. Although the Philippine rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, could not attain full independence, the Spanish were not able to end the uprising. In December 1897, negotiations with Spain resulted in the Treaty of Baik na Bato. All rebels were granted a general amnesty, and the leaders of the revolution returned to Hong Kong in voluntary exile. While in Hong Kong, Aguinaldo, and his compatriots today have the national flag of the Philippines.
history of the Philippines American era and independence (2)
At the same time as the Philippines was fighting for independence, Cuba, also a Spanish colony, was trying to free itself from the Spanish government. However, Cuba had the support of the United States. When the US warship, the USS Mine, sank in the port of Havana, the war between the United States and Spain drew to a close.
On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war on Spain, and Commodore George Dewey, commander of the American Asiatic Squadron, was sent to join the Spanish Navy in the Philippines. On the morning of May 1, 1898, Dewey attacked the Spanish fleet with his ship USS Olympia. The fight lasted only a few hours, resulting in the complete destruction of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. The US fleet suffered only minor damage.
history of the Philippines The Spanish-American War officially ended on December 10, 1898, with Paris. However, the US government was only interested in Cuba’s independence, not the Philippines. Through the deal, Cuba gained its independence and Spain handed over the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States for the US $ 20 million. Given its history of the colonial revolution, American opinion was restless and divided on the proprietary moral principles of colonial dependence. After receiving the Philippines almost accidentally, the United States wasn’t sure what to do with it. On January 20, 1899, President McKinley appointed the first Filipino commission (Shurman Commission) to make recommendations.
However, on December 8, 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese army invaded the Philippines. Under General Douglas MacArthur’s command, US troops withdrew from Java on December 12, 1941. MacArthur promises: “I’ll be back”. General MacArthur fulfilled his promise and returned to the island of Leyte in October 1944 with a vast privilege. Over the next four months, the US army overthrew the Japanese army with the help of a Filipino guerrilla.
After the war, the United States restored the Commonwealth’s pre-war government. In 1946, the Philippines was transformed from the Commonwealth to an independent republic.