India History And Culture

India History And Culture (India history)

The history and culture of India is vibrant, dating back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture in the farming communities on the banks of the Indus and in the southern lands of India. The history of India has been bound by the continuous integration of people who migrate with diverse cultures. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely spread throughout the Indian subcontinent, indicating the progress that this section has made. By the end of the fourth century BC, India had emerged as a region of a highly developed civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization(India history)

The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization, more clearly known as the Harappa Civilization. It developed in the western part of South Asia, which today is Pakistan and western India, about 2,500 BC. The Indus Valley was the largest of the four ancient civilizations, Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Nothing was known about this civilization until the 1920s when the Archaeological Department of India excavated the Indus Valley in ruins of two old cities, viz. Mohanjodaro and Harappa were searched. Ruins of buildings and other objects such as household articles, war weapons, gold and silver jewelry, seals, toys, pottery items, etc. show that some four to five thousand years ago a highly developed civilization in the region. It was over.

mahanjo daro

The Indus Valley Civilization was primarily a civilized civilization and people lived in well-planned and well-built towns, which were also centers of trade. The ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate that they were a great trading city, well-planned, scientifically placed, and well-looked after. They had wide roads and a good drainage system. The houses were made of brick and had two or more floors.

Highly cultured carnivores knew the art of grain-raising, and wheat and barley formed their main diet. They ate vegetables and fruits and also ate mutton, pork and eggs. Evidence also suggests that they wore cotton as well as woolen clothing. In 1500 BC, the culture of the Harappan was over. Among the many reasons for the destruction of the Indus Valley civilization are recurrent floods and other natural causes such as earthquakes.

Vedic Civilization

 Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in the history of ancient India.. It is named after the early Hindu literature of the Hindu people. The Vedic civilization extended to the banks of the river Saraswati, in the region that now comprises the modern state of India, Haryana and Punjab. Vedic is synonymous with Hinduism, which is another name for religious and spiritual thought derived from the Vedas.

Ramayana and the Mahabharata were two great epics of the period.

The northern part of India represents a series of contradictory regions, each with its own distinct cultural history and its own population. In the North-West Valley, Balistan (now mostly in Balochistan, Pakistan) has a low rainfall area, mainly wheat and what is produced and population density is very low. Its inhabitants, especially the tribal people, are in many respects similar to their Iranian neighbors. The plains of adjoining Sindh are also areas of very low rainfall, but in ancient times the river’s annual floods and the exploitation of its waters through canal irrigation in modern times have increased agricultural production, and the population has been more than that.

The den is relatively low. Balochistan – The valley of Sindh can be divided into three parts: in the north there are five rivers plains of Punjab (Persian: Punjab, “five waters”). In the middle, the strong waters of Sindh and its suburbs flow into the plains of Sindh procession. And in the south, water naturally flows into the Indus Delta.

East of the latter is the Great Indian, or Thar, Desert, which in turn is connected by a mountainous system to the east, known as the Arawali Range, to the north of the Deccan plateau. Next to them is the mountainous region of Rajasthan and Malwa Pluto. To the south is the Kathiawar Peninsula, an extension of Rajasthan geographically and culturally. All of these regions have a relatively low population in comparison to the previous group, but they tend to remain at least somewhat isolated during historical times, for reasons of painting.

East Punjab map

East Punjab and Rajasthan form a series of northern Indian belts, which runs extensively from west to east and north after the boundary of the Himalayas. The southern belt comprises a mountainous, forested area that has been broken by several escapes through close association with the Wandia series, including the Bhandir, Riva, and Kemor plateaus. Between the mountains of Central India and the Himalayas, the river Ganga is well-suited to form an area of ​​high density, moderate rainfall and high

agricultural productivity. Archeology shows that rice cultivation has played a major part in supporting this population since the beginning of the first millennium BC. The Ganges Valley is divided into three major sections: the Ganges-Yamuna Doab (the land area formed by the confluence of two rivers) to the west. To the east of the confluence lies the valley of the Central Ganges, where rice cultivation increases in the population.

And in the south-east is the vast delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The Brahma Patra flows from the northeast, rises from the Tibetan Himalayas, and descends from the mountains to the Assam Valley, with steep bamboo ranges and Naga hills, and bounded on the south by maker, cassia, gentia and garo. The hill. There is plenty of evidence that the influence reached ancient India in the ancient times, even though it was less prominent than those coming from the northwest.

Mahanadi

Along the Deccan plateau, there is a gradual decline to the east, with its major river systems – Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery (Cauvery) – in the Bay of Bengal. About 3,000 feet feet (1,000 feet) or more rise on the western bank of the Deccan, a script known as the Western Ghats traps wind moisture from the Arabian Sea, especially in the southwest monsoon. In the meantime, the tropical monsoon creates tropical climate. Missing the main articles and westerns from the rain. The absence of snowpack in the upper reaches of the southern India depends entirely on the rainfall due to its flow. The arrival of the southwest monsoon in June is an important annual event for the island’s culture.

India is known only through the reconstruction of archaeological

evidence, from historical antiquity to the decline of the civilization of Sindh. Since the end of the 20th century, a lot of new data has emerged, allowing for even more complete reconstruction than was possible before. The five major periods will be discussed in this section: (1) the early prehistoric period

(before the eighth century BC), (2) the period of prehistoric agriculturalists and backers (from about the eighth to the millennium BC), (3) witnessing the appearance of the first cities in the Indus River system (c. 3500–2600 BC), the early Indus, or the early Harappan, the period (named after the city of Harappa, excavated in East Pakistan). ), (4) the Indus, or Harappan, civilization (ending 2600-2000 BC, or perhaps 1750 BC), and (5) the post-urban era, which followed the civilization of Sindh. S during the second quarter of the first century BC, before the rise of cities in northern India (c. 1750-750 BC).

The materials available for reconstructing the history of India before the 3rd century BC are almost entirely the product of archaeological research.

Traditional and textual sources pass orally for many centuries, dating back to the second century BC, but their use depends largely on the history or archeological evidence of any passage. Can be done Archeological evidence is still the main source of information for the rise of civilization in the valley and modern events in other parts of the subcontinent. Even when it is possible to read short writings of Harapan seals, it is not possible to provide more information for the completion of other sources. In these situations it is important to refer to the early history of India from the view of the archaeologists at large, and it would be wise to balance the proper evaluation and artificial interpretation of archaeological data.

Early prehistoric period

In the middle of the nineteenth century, archaeologists in southern India identified the axes of the hand comparable to the Stone Age. For nearly a century thereafter, a growing body of evidence was involved in an attempt to integrate Indian history with a well-documented European and Mediterranean history. Since the majority of the early discoveries were from surface locations, they remained without long dates or cultural context. Recently, recently, excavations of numerous caves and dunes have yielded samples associated with organic matter that can be linked to the history using the carbon-14 method,

and thermoluminescent and paleomagnetic analysis techniques. Now allows the dating of pot pieces and other inorganic substances. General Chat Chat Lounge Investigations that began in the late 20th century have given the context of a cultural evolution on the unique environment of the sub-continent that is unmatched by other regions. The growing understanding of plate tectonics, a reference to development, has greatly improved this effort.

It was once thought to reflect a global continuation of human cultural evolution that most of India’s earlier sketches contained. The European concept of the Old Stone Age, or the Pale Lithic period (consisting of lower, eastern, and upper stages), is useful in South Asia in identifying technology levels, in addition to a universal timeline. Similarly, the Indian Masi Lathe period (Middle Stone Age) is generally compatible with Europe.

In later periods, the positions of the Neolithic period (the New Stone Age) and the Chalcolitic Age (Copper Stone Age) are also applied, but are increasing, as archeology has a more detailed cultural profile for these periods. Developed, so the scholars insisted on overcoming it. The bases of early societies – eg, hunting and gathering, pastoralism, and agriculture. The terms of the early Harappan and Harappan (the site where the remnants of a major city of civilization were discovered in 1921) are mainly used in historical but loose ways, which correspond to the appearance or cultures of the earlier appearance. Are. For the life of the city and the civilization of Sindh itself in the valley Sindh.

Indian Paleolithic

The oldest artifacts still found in the subcontinent, indicating it may be called the beginning of the Indian iron system, come from the western tip of the Shawalik Range, near Rawalpindi in northern Pakistan. This quartzite gravel tool and flax dates back to about a million years ago, which, according to the latest analysis, represents the one-handed ax industry that followed a long period of time. Up to The arts are highly proportional to sedimentary evidence and fossil animals, but so far no relevant human species (ie members of the human lineage) have been found. In the same region, the early hand axes (usually associated with the Achilles industry) date back to about 500 500,000 years ago.

India-Pakistan border image

The great desert, now in the southern half of the India-Pakistan border, provided important archaeological supplies at the end of the 20th century. The axes of the hand found in Dedwana, Rajasthan, which resemble the Scholak range, date back to around 400,000 years ago. Examination of the desert soil and other evidence has revealed a link between the resulting climate and the level of technology that constitutes the evolution. For example, a long humid phase, as evidenced by deep-profile reddish brown clay, began some 140,000 years ago and lasted about 25,000 years ago, almost roughly the Middle Paleolithic period. To the extent of During this time, the prevailing desert area provided a rich environment for hunting.

The Rohri hill, situated on the outskirts of the Indus River, is a group of sites connected to the source of the Chart, a type of stone that is an important raw material for making tools and weapons. The evidence around these chert bands all reflects their development as a major factory center during the eastern Paleolithic — all in a valley that is otherwise rock-solid. The transition to a dry climate in the same region from about 40 40,000 to 25,000 years ago is comparable to the onset of the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted about 15 to 15,000 years ago. The main innovation marking this table is the preparation of parallel sided blades. Plus, the upper paleolithic tools showcase adaptations for special working materials such as leather, wood and bone. So far the paintings of this ancient rock have been found in the region up to the Upper Paleolithic.

Other important Paleolithic sites that have been excavated include the laughter of the state of Karnataka, the North-West Frontier Province, Pak, and the Sangha Cave, separating the Ganges basin from the Deccan plateau in the Vindhya range. In the latter, local activists easily identified a tall palaeolithic limestone painter that represented the mother goddess.

Beginning in the eastern Paleolithic, the elongation of the stone artifacts has reached its climax, in its small parallel-sided blades and micro-lathes, called the Indian Macy lathe. A large prevalence of Mesolithic cultures is prevalent throughout India, though it is almost exclusively known for equipment storage. The cultures of the period exhibited a variety of livelihood patterns, including hunting and gathering, fishing, and at least for some part of the period, some on aquaculture and small scale agriculture. It can be estimated from several examples that hunting cultures often live together and interact with agricultural and animal communities. As a result of environmental and other factors, these relationships are constantly changing from region to region. Surprisingly, such patterns of communication existed long before the rest of the history of the subcontinent and up to the historical, with traces evident in some areas in the 20th century.

Thus, historically, Mesolithic cultures span a very wide period. There are several Messi Lathak sites in Sri Lanka dating from about 30 30,000 years ago, the oldest recorded in South Asia during that period. On the other end of the subcontinent, in the caves of Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan, evidence of occupation between 15,000 and 10,000 BCE represents the epic paleologic stage, which has to go inside the Messi Lathak. It seems that flocks of sheep have begun to grow in this region and period.

Many of the caves and cliff shelters of Central India have rock paintings depicting numerous articles, including game animals and human activities such as hunting, honey collecting and dancing. This art seems to have originated from the Upper Paleolithic occupations and shows a lot about life in this period. Along with art, there are clearly indications that some caves had places of religious activity.

Early agriculturalists and animal-driven

Colonial agriculture in Sindh and Balochistan valley

The Indo-Iranian border regions constitute the eastern extension of the Iranian plateau and in some ways mirror the fertile Crescent in the Middle East (agricultural land stretching from the river system to the Nile Valley). At the plateau, there were lines of communication from the earliest to the ancient, suggesting widespread harmony of progress in both the eastern and western ranges. At the end of the 20th century, knowledge about the early settlements on the Indus and Baluchistan borders revolutionized by excavation at Mahargarh and elsewhere.

The group of places in Mahargarh provides evidence of the occupation of two major periods of five or six thousand years, the first during the eighth to sixth centuries BC, and the second from the fifth (and possibly the third) millennium. The earliest evidence of this is found in a massive 23-foot (7 meter) deep mound beneath the raw deposits. Two subdivisions of the period are visible from the mound.

Phase IA, occurring in the 8th-7th century BC, was aceramic (ie, lack of vessels) Neolithic occupation. The main tools were stone blades, including lint and triangles, some mounted with bitumen mast for wooden weeks. A relatively small number of small rock axes are found. During this stage, the domestic portion of wheat and barley apparently reached the area to some extent, just like sheep and goats, although the efficacy of past bones among animals shows a constant dependence on prey. Earthen brick houses have been dating since the beginning of this phase and are in full occupancy. In addition to the simple burial of human remains, slaughter or stone beads, baskets and the occasional young skull (both sheep and goats) are included for this purpose.

Phase 1b, which dates back to the 7th and 6th millenniums, is characterized by the appearance of pottery and the improvement of agriculture. Since the inception of Phase 1B, cattle (apparently the Bose Index, the Indian flogged variety) have dominated sport animals as well as sheep. A new type of building, small regular parts of which it is certainly known as grains, first appeared during this phase and flowed into phase II, indicating a repeated presence of crop growth. Is. The burial took another broad form. The recreation tent was dug at one end of a pit, and after a short stay the tent was sealed with a mud brick wall. At the end of the period I also come up with the first small, hand-crafted sculpture of clay.

The first proof of the period at Mahargarh gives a clear picture of the early agricultural settlement in which domestic architecture has been exhibited and a variety of fine crafts. The use of marine shells and various semi-thin rocks, including turquoise and lapis lazuli, indicates the existence of a commercial network extending from the coast to possibly Central Asia.

Strike changes feature Period II. It seems that at the beginning of this period (c. 5500 BC), a large tectonic event occurred, which had accumulated large amounts of silt in the plains, and the original mound was buried in Mahargarh. ۔ All the features of the former culture remained intact, albeit in a modified form. The use of pottery increased. The granules spread, sometimes on a large scale. The remains of several massive brick walls and platforms suggest something approaching the monumental architecture. Evidence appears on several new crafts, including the first examples of copper and ivory use. Apparently the population area has grown to accommodate the growing population.

Although settlement in Mehargarh is widely considered, it should not be considered as a unique location. There are indications (not yet fully explored) that similar starting points may exist elsewhere in other parts of Balochistan and the Indo-Iran border.

In the northern parts of the Indian system, the oldest settlements are much later than Mahargarh. For example, in Sarai Khola (near the ruins of Taxila in Punjab, Pakistan), the early occupation dates to the end of the fourth century, and it clearly represents a tradition that connects modern Sindh or Balochistan. The stone ax and the plain were burned. Red brown pottery The same is the case in Bershom in Kashmir Valley, where houses in deep pits are associated with stone axes, bone tools, and brown pottery. Evidence for the “aceramic Neolithic” phase is located in another location in Gfakral, Kashmir, which has been transmitted by radio carbon for the third century and later.

Progress in the Ganges Basin

In the hills south of the Ganga (Ganga) valley, a group of places has been assigned to the “Windia Newcomer”. At least one of them, Coldhiwa, is reported to be about the 7th century. Sites include circular huts made of wood and stick. Goods and utensils associated with it include stone blades, earthstone axes, bone tools, and raw handmade pottery, often with cords or baskets used for clay formation. In one case a small livestock pen has been dug. Rice straw is found, though it remains to be determined from wild or cultivated varieties. There is considerable uncertainty about the history of these settlements. Very few radio carbon dates penetrate more than the second century.

Early settlements in the peninsular India

The earliest recorded dates for settlements in the peninsular India date back to the early centuries of the third century. A pastoral character dominates the evidence. In the northern parts of Karnataka, the center from which the priests used the stone ax is shown in many parts of the southern part of the peninsula. The earliest radiocarbon dates obtained in the area are from the ash mounds that originate from burning of cattle in pigeons at these locations of large groups of cow dung. This shows that the earlier settlers were drunk and that the Brahmin (Zebo) had a large herd of cattle. The earliest known settlements, located in Kodakal and Atnur, date back to 2900 BC. Other important destinations are Brahmagiri and Tikkalkota in Karnataka and Atanur and Nagarjunikonda in Andhra Pradesh.

Three gold ornaments were excavated in the Tikal quota, which exploits local ore reserves, but no metal ore has been found, indicating a shortage of metals. These early sites produced a small amount of specific burnt brown earthenware, black colored red earthenware, stone axes, and bone points, and in some cases also evidence of the stone blade industry. Were present. The axis usually has an oval section and is triangular with bare buttocks.

In the remnants of bones, there is a majority of livestock, while there are also sheep or goats. Other settlements have been excavated in recent years in this region, but so far they have produced dates from the second century, indicating that this culture continued for many centuries with very little change. Usually stone axes of similar shape are found widely throughout the southern island of Uula and can be taken as an indication of the spread of pastoralists in the region during the second century BC.

Early settlements in East India

Archaeologists have long established the existence of the Neolithic settlements in the eastern border areas of South Asia on the basis of extensive collection of axes and bases of the south, often compared to Southeast Asia and South China. However, evidence for their collection history or for the culture of those who have no significant evidence of them. The excavation, located near the town of Guwahati, revealed a stone ax and a shoulder cellar (a type of specialized neuralgic device) that had been worked in conjunction with bone or basket-shaped pottery.

Rise of Citizenship in Sindh Valley

By 5000 BCE B BC, an increasing number of populations began to appear on the Indian-Iran border. As far as can be decided, the settlers were rural groups of agriculturalists, who used common means of cultivating wheat, barley and other crops and in the care of cattle, sheep and goats. For some samples there was a general level of technology based on the use of stone and for others the use of copper and brass. Comparisons of high quality paint pots of the era and vice versa suggest a separate grouping between communities.

At a later date, probably in the middle of the fourth century BC, the widespread spread of agricultural settlements began in the Indus Valley. Of these, the ancient cultures provide clear links with or beyond the western margin of the Indus. Over time, a remarkable change occurred in the shape of the Indus settlements, indicating that some degree of interaction is developing, often at considerable distances, and that a process of ambiguity is in progress. ۔ It lasted for about 500 years and can now be identified as a transition to the entire civil society that originated in Harappa and similar places around 2600 BC. For this reason, this stage has been named as the culture of early occupation, or early Sindh.

The expansion and history of the early Harapan culture

It is now clear that the sites assigned for the early occupation period are spread over a wide area: from the Indus Delta in the south, to Saurashtra in the southeast; in the northwest to West Punjab in the direction of the Indus. From the Harappa in the east to the Bahawalpur region of Pakistan; and, in the northeast, the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. in short. That the area of ​​early Harappan culture was closely associated with the Indus civilization.

Radio carbon dating of a sample of a large number of excavated sites provides a fairly permanent historical picture. The early Harappan period began in the 4th Thousand BCE and continued until the middle of the third millennium, when the Indus civilization had displaced it in many areas. In some areas, especially in Punjab, the mature urban style was never fully established, and the initial style of galloping in these areas continued until around 2000 BCE with little or no visible sign of adult Harappan contact. Been there

Principal Sites

One of the most striking features of the early settlements is the evidence of a high ranking among these places, which results in several fairly walled cities. The first site dating to the early Harappan era was the United States in 1929. In 1948, British archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler deposited a small amount of artificial pottery beneath the remains of the solemn Indus city at Harappa. The next site was Kot Digi (currently in Sindh Province, Pakistan), excavated for the purpose of uncovering the early Harapan period. Surrounded by a stone debris enclosure, which appears today, about 3,000 BC. An earlier example is Rehman Dheri near Dera Ismail Khan,

which appears to have gained its wall status during the last centuries of the fourth century. There was an almost rectangular, grid-patterned town surrounded by a large wall of clay brick. In Rajasthan, the earliest occupation resembled Rehman Dheri in Kali Bangan (Kali Banga) farm. Later it served as the basis for the expansion of the Indus civilization. East Punjab and Haryana are still the earliest places of Harapan in the Far East. Many of them have been excavated, most notably Bannavali and Methol. The walls of this period are another example of a slum in southern Sindh. It’s probably. Was a coastal site, though it is now far from the sea. There are large traces of the surrounding walls and houses of local stone.

Provision and technology

The aforementioned excavation sites remain to be thoroughly studied and their results published, and information on the different characteristics of their inhabitants’ lives and economies is somewhat scarce. All this evidence shows that the survival of the early Harappan economy remained the same as it had been before it developed nearly two thousand years ago in Mahargarh. Cattle, sheep, and goats form the primary domestic animals, and wheat and barley form the primary crops. Kali Bangan and many other sites in Bahawalpur and Punjab provide interesting evidence regarding the use of hull.

At the former site, excavators discovered that it appears to have been a plowed field beneath the buildings from the solemn Indus. The style of cross-crosses was similar to the one that still operates in the region, with wide skins on one side being used for tall crops, such as peas, and narrow rows used for basil plants. Generations of sesame genus (such as the genus Sesame) moved from Banavali and the Saraswati River valley to terra cotta models, which supported the initial interpretation of field patterns.

Further publications and details need to be sought before acquiring a strong picture of the early gripping crafts and evidence of their products. So far, only a handful of copper tools have been found, and little is known about their sources and preparations. Many sites of settlement are far from any source of stone, and thus the regular appearance of the stone blade industry, which produces small, plain or serrated blades of finished stone

, shows that Raw material may have been imported, often the same distances apply to the large stones applied as a friction or grinder, but in the absence of detailed research, no definitive conclusion is possible. Relevant evidence shows that some of the modern sites, such as the Leon and the Turkish fort in the Bannu basin, were large scale factories, which manufactured many types of tools from carefully selected stones and brought them from neighboring areas. It is also seen in these places that there were centers for the manufacture of pearls of different stones.

Culture and religion

On the basis of the decoration of pottery, it can be concluded that during the period of early harpoon there were major changes in the intellectual life of the entire region. There are various types of pottery or painted markings in pottery on several sites, some with a superficially similar script. The significance of these marks is unclear, but they probably represent the owners’ marks that are used when preparing. Although it may be exaggerated to think of these symbols as original, they suggest that the need for scripts is starting to arise.

Of the decorative arrangements on pottery, some have clearly religious symbols. Examples of this are found in the mass of buffalo heads, which have long horns and, in some cases, branches of papillae (fax reliefs) or other forms of plants. They have been interpreted as representing the “buffalo deity”. A pair of such heads are seen in Levin’s paint bowl, with a buffalo and another kiss index, each adorned with papal plants. Other tools for painted utensils can also be of religious importance, especially peepal leaves that are found independently. Other examples include a fish farm and a fish scale pattern, which later appear as ordinary decoration on mature Sindhi vessels. Across the region, evidence supports the “Devil” of shape and decoration in anticipation of a more conservative Sindh style.

The remnants discussed above, which are considered collectively, suggest that the four or five thousand-year history of uninterrupted agricultural life in the Indus River marks the final eruption of a Indus civilization in 2600 BC. ۔ However, it can also be argued that cities were built in the cities around the early Harappan. Prior to understanding this fertile and provocative period, considerable research, excavation and comparative analysis are required.

Role and Importance

Although the Indus (or Harapana) civilization may be considered the most prolonged process of the Indus Valley, there are many similarities between the progress on the Indus River and the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia. This has to be compared with the most famous and most complete documentary region in Sindh, and it is interesting to see how closely these two cities meet with such important harmonies of appearance and civilization as writing, standard weights and measures and memorabilia. Is architecture. General Chat Chat Lounge Nonetheless, almost all of the earlier writers fueled their senses about Indian civilization, even when they were unable to explain it at large. Therefore, historian v. Gordon Challd writes:

India fought Egypt and Babylonia for the third millennium with its own completely individual and sovereign civilization, which is the foot of the rest. And obviously it has deep roots in Indian soil. The civilization of Sindh represents the perfect adjustment of human life to a particular environment. And it is tolerable. It is already exclusively Indian and forms the basis of modern Indian culture. (New Light on the Ancient of the Middle East, Fourth Edition, 1952.)

The power of Chelsea’s words can be appreciated even without the signature Sindh valley found on the cells. The focus on domestic bathrooms, bathrooms, and the great bathrooms of the Mohenjo Daro can be compared to elements of later Indian civilization. Bulls have a frame umbrella, called akacas, and boats have changed very little to date. The absence of pins and the love of bangles and ornaments of nose ornaments are all particularly South Asian. Sindh’s religion is also full of suggestions for coming from India. Importance of bulls, lions and elephants. Composite animals; seated yogi gods; tree spirits and objects resembling the later Shiv Ling (symbol of deity Shiva). These are all indications of sustainable forms in later Indian civilization.

With this wide-ranging discourse of cultural uniformity it is still impossible to do more than estimate social organization or political and administrative control. The evidence of widespread trade in many goods, clear uniformity of weights and measures, shared scripts, and uniformity – almost all common currency all point to some. measure of political and economic control, and the major cities point to Mohenjo Daro. Are. And take advantage of them as centers.

The presence of great granaries on the hill mounds in these cities and castles suggests – partially, the existence of priestly kings, or at least a priestly oligarch, who controlled the economy and the citizens, in imitation of the cities of Mesopotamia. What government. The surprising degree of intellectual governance and control contained in this government is still a matter of speculation. Nor can scholars speak with any certainty about the relationship between cities and surrounding villages. Many such topics need to be investigated before the full role of Indus civilization is revealed.

Scope

The first serious attempt to establish history for the Indus civilization depended on cross-dating with Mesopotamia. As such, Searle John Good cites the period of Arsen (2334–2279 BC) and the post-Eocene Larsa period (2017–1794 BC) when trade between ancient India and Mesopotamia was on the rise. The calibration of a growing number of radio carbon dates provides a reasonably consistent stream from site to site. Extensive imagery thus obtained shows that the civilized Indus civilization emerged between 2600 and 2500 BC, and continued its glory until 2000 BC. The evidence after that is still somewhat unclear, but the last phase of the culture, presumably, continued until about 17 1700 BCE, after that time, the post-Urban, or post-Harappan stage was talked about. Possible to do.

Apparently

All previous authors have emphasized the striking uniformity of the Harappan civilization product, and for this reason they provide a unique identity for its settlements. Recent evidence suggests that, if the outer spaces were aligned with the lines, the enclosed area is much less than the current Pakistan, especially larger than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square kilometers). Will be.

Granted, this cultural/ homogeneity is in part with some kind of political and administrative alliance, resulting in the size of the “empire” being really vast. Within this area, several hundred locations have been identified, most of which flows south of the Sutlej River and flows south of the Sutlej River, on the now-arid route of ancient Saraswati. Southward towards the Indian Ocean,

east in the main circle of Sindh itself. Some places are found on the Makran coast outside the Indus River, of which the western region nowadays is located on the Sutkin Door near the border with Iran. These sites were probably ports or trade posts, which supported the maritime trade with the Persian Gulf, and were established in places that would otherwise remain a separate cultural region. The land of Balochistan appears beyond the direct rule of Harappa, giving clear evidence of the connection between trade and the civilization of Sindh.

To the east of the Indus Delta, other coastal sites are found beyond the marshy flats of the thighs and the peninsula to Kathiswala (Saurashtra). These include the Estorian Trading Post in the Gulf Lothal of Kambhat (Cambay), and many other sites, some of which are important. Several important places west of the Indus River are located on the Kachi desert area of ​​Balochistan, Pak, towards Sibi and Quetta. To the east of the Indus River, to the north, many places are located on the Himalayan foothills, where in the north of Delhi, in the Alamgirpur, the eastern Harappan (or perhaps more properly, the late Harapan) settlement has been discovered. ۔ And if partial excavation compares. these areas with the early settlements of Harappa, it will be seen that along the coast, west and east and east, the path of the Punjab extends in several directions along the Ganges-Yamuna.

Harappan sites range from large cities to small villages or outposts. The two largest motions are Daro and Harappa, each probably about a mile wide in dimensions. Each feature is shared, with a strong fortified hill in the west and a large “lower city” in the east, almost in the north south. A similar view is understandable in the small town of Kalyan, and it appears that several other large settlements have shared the scheme.

Other important places include Dhulvira and Sorkota near the thigh. of the Kalah. Nowsharu Feroz in Balochistan, Pak; Shorthui in Northern Afghanistan; Umari, Chuno Dardo, and Jodirjo Daro in Sindh. And a singer in Bahawalpur. In small sites, the particular interest comes from Lothal, where many unique and disturbing features were found in the excavation. Of all the places, extensive excavations have been done in Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Kali Bangan and Lothal, and more can be said about their original layout and planning. As such, they are considered in more detail below.

At three large excavated sites, the fort is situated on the north-south axis and is about twice as long as it is wide. The lower city is laid out in a grid grid of roads. In Kali Bangan it was a regular width of control, with major roads passing, while minor lanes were sometimes offset, producing blocks of different sizes. At these three places the fort was protected by a large brick wall, which was strengthened by intermittent squares or rectangular bases in black dense. In Kali Bangan, some low wall traces have also been discovered around the lower city. In all three cases, the city was located near a river, though the curriculum has now become extinct.

The most common substance in each building was brick, but the amount of burnt clay varies from burnt brick to brick. Mohenjo Daro employs burning bricks, probably because wood was more readily available, while clay brick was specified for filling and large-scale work. On the other hand, Kali Bangan preserved burnt bricks for bathrooms, wells and drains. Most of the domestic architecture in Kali Bangan was from clay bricks. Bricks were usually enclosed in alternate headers and stretchers,

so-called English bond courses. The stone was seldom, if ever, structurally worked. Wood is occasionally used for brickwork. Was used, especially in large-scale work such as defense or granularity in Mohenjo Daro. The common bricks were made in an open mold, but for special purposes ,sheep bricks were used. The timber was used for universal flat roofs, and in some cases the sockets indicate square cut beams that are 14 feet (4.5 meters) long.

The houses were always entered by straight paths, with walls facing the empty streets leading to an empty brick that was broken only by the drainage donkey. In addition to the domestic structure, a wide range of shops and handicrafts workshops, were encountered, including pottery kilns, dyer vats, and metal makers, shell workers, and garment shops. Surprisingly, there is little evidence of public places,

although several possible temples were discovered in the lower city of Mohenjo Daro, and other buildings of a formal character were reported in the fort. The size of the houses is quite different. There is an extremely spacious one-room barracks, in which the cooking and bathing areas are constructed by dividing walls, and on the other side are adjacent to the central courtyard or sometimes adjacent to a set of adjoining rooms. There are big houses along the way. Nearly all the big houses had private wells. In many cases the brick chains were the reason for the roofs of the upper stories or flats. Bathrooms are generally indicated by the excellent brick quality and waste drains on the floor.

Scare off India history

The Mohenjo-daro mound is located near the right bank of Sindh in Larkana district of Sindh province. The excavation revealed that the lowest level of the former occupation was covered with raw mud deposits 30 feet (10 m) deep, which is attributable to annual flooding. Thus, the lower levels are below the current water table and are still largely uneven. As mentioned above, the main features of the setting of Mohenjo Daro. are a fort in the west and a lower city and a grid of roads in the east.

Much has been said about the general features of the lower city, so that it is unnecessary to add any significant areas of excavation in this section. However, the fort demands more attention. In the fort, an English archaeologist Sir John Hubert Marshall discovered a massive mud brick and clay platform at about mud 20 feet (6 m) deep, on top of which were six significant levels of the building. Under this platform, save the early days. This is likely, but by no means is it certain that the platform was raised as a flood prevention. It and its surroundings were built around the beginning of the Intermediate Term.

Mohenjo-daro mound is located
Mohenjo-daro mound is located

The main buildings of the fort all seem to belong to the same period. Most surprising of all is the Great Bath, which is central to the well-protected northern half of the fort. It is made of fine brick, measuring 897 square feet (83 square meters), and 8 feet (2.5 meters) lower than the adjoining floor. The bathroom has two fur brick skins with gypsum mortar set on the edge, a layer of bitumen sealer between the skins.

Apparently water was supplied by a large well in an adjoining room, and a shop in one corner of the bath had defamed a tall carbide drain on the west side of the hill. The bath was reached either by flight of steps, but actually the pieces of wood were kept in it. The significance of this unusual structure can only be underestimated, but it is generally thought that it belongs to a formal bath. To the north and east of the bath were groups of rooms that were apparently, arranged for a special event, probably belonging to the administrators or groups of priests who controlled not only this city but this great state.

At a height of about 5 feet (1.5 meters) to the west of the bath and a complex section of brick platform separated by interconnected passages formed a podium of some 150 feet 75 feet (45 twenty meters), Wheeler has identified. The foundation of a great grain known as Harappa. Beneath the granules were brick-driven cells. In the southern part of the mound was a wall “assembly hall” discovered, consisting of four rows of brick-rich brick bricks to take wood columns. In one of the rooms adjoining the hall, a stone statue of sitting men was found, and many large working stone toes were found nearby, possibly of some architectural significance. It is believed that this area was of particular importance and may have been a temple or belonging to a religious community.

The large Harappan tent stands on the left bank of the river Ravi’s dry path in Punjab. They were excavated by India’s Archaeological Survey between 1920 and 1934, by Wheeler in 1946, and by an American and Pakistani team in the late 20th century. When first discovered, the site is described as a ruined brick fortress, resulting in widespread brick survival. The lower town is partially occupied by a modern village, and erosion and brick robbers have greatly disturbed it. In the west, the castle plan is approximately a parallelogram, measuring approximately 1,300 by 650 feet (400 by 200 meters). The excavation revealed, a fine platform of clay brick, 20 feet (6 m) thick, with a brick wall all around.

Traces of the early Harappan era were discovered under the defense. The excavation was not extensive enough to reveal the layout of the interiors, but around the sixth period of the building was discovered on the platform. The most interesting remains were discovered immediately north of the fort near the bed of the river: there was a series of circular platforms that clearly contained mortar to kill the grain.

A remarkable series of brick mats, estimated to have formed a podium for two rows of six-story buildings, each measuring 50 feet 20 feet (15 by 6 meters) and the people of Mohenjo-daro. Different design. A series of pear-shaped kilns, apparently used for metalworking. And two rows of single-barracked barracks, which are generally thought to be occupied by servants. Two other discoveries were made in Harappa south of the fort. Two cemeteries were found there. 37, “belongs to the Harappan period, and the” H “is similar to the Late or even Harappan era. They have different burial modes and will be discussed below.

A third of the important sites in the excavation site are Kalybanan, India history

which stands on the left bank of the dry bed of the Saraswati river in northern Rajasthan. As mentioned above, the early Harappan population is located below the remains, and is a form of the main town of Harappan, similar to Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. In the lower town, the excavation revealed nine phases of a new building. The fort is a parallelogram with a plan of approximately 4 430 feet (130 meters) on the east-west axis and 850 feet (260 meters) north-south. Brick hinges have reduced the entire site altogether, but careful excavation reveals the main course of the central portion of the main cistern,

which has piercing holes on each corner and small bases on the north and south walls. ۔ Principal access was from a flight of steps from the south. Access from the north was via a straight path leading to a ladder, with a further section of sulfur with an internal gateway, in the northwest corner near the river bank. Brick wall signs were also encountered around the lower city.

In the main area of ​​the fort is a series of high brick platforms divided by narrow paths. The upper parts of these platforms were severely damaged, and their work is mysterious, but it does not appear to have a grain base. In the northern sector, there was ordinary household housing. A graveyard was discovered a short distance west of the town. It is to be hoped that, when the excavation of this place is published, it will greatly increase the knowledge of the civilization of Sindh.

Another excavated site deserves special attention. India history

It is a Lothal, a small settlement built on low land near a river on the Sabarmati River on the western bank of the Gulf Khambat. It appears to have served as a port or commercial station. The setting is specific. The place is almost rectangular, with a length of 1,180 feet (360 meters) on the north-south axis and 690 feet (210 meters) in the west. It had a large brick wall around it, which was probably used to protect the flood. The southeast quadrant forms a large brick platform, covering the ground,

with a height of about 13 feet (4 m). It is made up of a series of small platforms that remind, each other of the grain in the Mohenjo-Daro with interconnected air channels, the overall dimensions of which are about 159 by 139 feet (48 to 42 meters). Is. Behind the block were other buildings, including a row of 12 bathrooms with an adjoining drainage, which are also strongly reminiscent of those found at the Mohenjo-daro fort. The remaining enclaves were occupied by houses and shops. The main finders were the bead factory and the goldsmiths and gold shops. The main street ran north to south.

However, the most unexpected discovery in Lothal was a fine brick tower, some 718 by 121 feet (219 to 37 meters) high, with brick walls 1515 (4.5 m) high. It is to the east of the town, with the platform on which the granary block stands. At one end of the basin was a small slice or spillway with a locking device. The excavator estimated that the basin was a dock on which ships could be brought via artificial channel from a nearby route, which was kept dirt-free, controlling the flow of water from the spillway. This view has not been universally accepted. The second view is that it provided a source of fresh water for drinking or agriculture. To the west of this place, a cemetery was found outside the wall’s circle.

Other important sites India history

A growing number of other sites have been excavated, each one important in its own way. On the coast near Las Bella in Balochistan, enough shell working industry suggestive materials have been found in Balakot. Not far from Mahargarh, a small bear population in Nowshera Feroz, the head of a bear in Balochistan, provides valuable evidence of turning the early gourd into a mature hare. Near Wrench Something, Sorkotah, is a small settlement with a wall-to-wall structure. In addition, there is Dholvira in Kacha, one of the largest Harappan population ever. The nine-year-old excavation at the site, completed in 2001,

yielded a Indus Indus Valley town dating to the mid-third, century BC and covering about 3.5 acres (1.4 hectares). The team of the Archaeological Survey of India unveils a sophisticated aquatic management system with a series of aquatic reservoirs – 265 by 40 feet (80 to 12 meters) wide and 23 feet (7 meters) deep. – Used to protect rainwater. Among the places excavated in Punjab, Banoli is a very important settlement, which has been extensively defended with bricks all around. One of the most surprising discoveries, which is far from the central area of ​​the civilization of Sindh, is the short cow in the valley of the Amu Darya (River Axis) in northern Afghanistan. The remnants of a small Harappa colony, which was probably hired to provide control of the Lapis lazuli export trade in neighboring Badakhshan, have been excavated by a French team.

Population –

The Mohenjodaro population has been estimated independently by two. They are both based on an estimate of the area covered and the density of people living there, who in recent times use traditional settlements in the region to compare. Hugh Trevor Lambert proposed a figure of about 35,000 for Mohenjo-daro and a nearly identical figure to Harappa, while Walter A. Ferrers estimated it at about 41,250 and the latter 23, Said about 500. These figures are probably conservative. It would be possible to estimate the population for other sites along similar lines, especially for Kali Gangan, of which the lower city area is in the fifth near Mohenjo-daro. India history India history India history India history India history India history India history

And animal breeding

It is certain that such a large number of the population had never before seen history in the subcontinent. Clearly the exploitation of the river Indus and the use of the fort found in Kali Ganjan, were of great importance during the early Harapan period. During the winter months, the egg is minimal and rises permanently in the spring and summer, decreases to a minimum and then decreases. The traditional exploitation of floods can provide an easy way to grow basic crops without plowing, fertilizer or large irrigation,

India history Lambrick said. The main grain load will be at the end of the oncoming floods on the land that was recently flooded, and the crop will be harvested in March or April. Other crops can be sown in trenches at the beginning of the flood so that they can receive the growing water they need and can be harvested in the fall.

Wheat samples from Sindh cities are identified from two subspecies of Triticum spirococum and T. sativum vulgare and Compactum. Also found in Hordeum vulgare, a variety of nudum and a variety of hexastichum species. The recording of rice has been recorded in Gujarat during the Harappan period, but cultivation is not yet clear. Other crops include palm, watermelon, sesame and various types of fruit plants such as field peas. Mustard seeds, mostly mustard seeds (most probably Brassica juncea) were obtained. Finally, there is evidence that cotton was used for cultivation and textiles.

Several pet species have been found excavated in Harappan cities. India’s torn cattle (Bose Index) is often encountered, though not clearly established, with a relentless variety, as shown on seals. Buffalo (B. Babylon) is less common and may be wilder. Sheep and goats are found, as is the Indian pig (Sus cristatus). The camel is present, as well as the donkey (Ekos asynos). The bones of domestic birds are not uncommon. These birds were reared from indigenous forest birds. Finally, both the cat and the dog were clearly raised. The elephant is, but does not necessarily belong to, a rearing species. The horse is potentially present but extremely rare and apparently only present in the final stages of the Harappan era.

Communication

It is clear that in order to achieve a degree of uniformity in the material ,culture of the excavation, sufficient linkage between the cities and towns of the Indian state should be maintained. This type of connection can be between land and river, just as foreign trade may have worked across the seabed and on the sea. Probably meant for earthly travel was probably a pack bull, camel or ass. All of these animals were, or were, recently used for pack transport in remote districts of remote suburbs. For travel in the plains of the Flats Zulu, the bullock was probably the main vehicle. India history

The terra cotta model of such vehicles, which is seemingly little different from the modern Indian cart, is encountered. Small, small vehicles for the dishes of the person, whose body is above the axle and the frame is known as the smaller model of brass, like the umbrella (mostly modern ace). Boats also have multiple representations. They are mostly simple designs without masks and seals and are meant for river travel instead of cruising.

Would be more appropriate. A terracotta quota model was found at Lothal for a drill and eye socket for another type of boat. It looks like it’s some other seafood. The Dock Basin in Lothal may have provided berths for domestic craft vessels operating along the India history Indian Gulf of Persia. The excavators found the heavily carved rocks discovered around the dock basin in Lothal, thinking that it was still the same as the stones of those boats still used by local boats as anchors. India history India history India history India history India history India history India history

Craft & Technology (India history)

The Indus Civilization showcases numerous craftsmanship and technical skills. As the Chalde remarks, they depended on basic discoveries that were exploited in Egypt or Mesopotamia, but in every case, craftsmanship gained its own significance. Recent research in Mohenjo Daro reveals that in different parts of the lower city there were houses of families who specialize in different crafts. Such evidence reinforces the notion that professional specialization was firmly established.

Copper and bronze were the principal metals used to make tools and tools. These include flat oblong axes, chisels, knives, spears, arrows (a type that was apparently exported to neighboring tribes in the neighboring country), small saws and razors. All of this can be made with easy casting, chisel and hammering. Brass is less common than copper, and it is especially rare at the lower levels.

Four major types of metal have been found: raw copper lumps in the state in which they left the perfume furnace. Improved copper, which contains trace elements of arsenic and antimony. An alloy of copper with 2 to 5% of arsenic. And with a ton of alloy, the bronze is often 11 to 13 percent. Their best products are copper and brass utensils, which form sheets made of metal hammers. Copper and brass castings were considered, and men and animal sculptures were made from the lost wax process. They are also technically outstanding, though it is not considered that the overall level of copper bronze has not reached the level achieved in Mesopotamia. India history

The other metals used were gold, silver, and lead. The latter occasionally worked to make small bouquets and accessories such as plumb bobs. Silver is relatively more common than gold, and is generally known to be more than a few utensils in shape resembling copper and brass examples. Gold is by no means common and was usually reserved for beads, pendants, and brooches for such small items.

Other special crafts include the manufacture of beautification (colored glaze-decorated pottery) – the preparation of beads, amulets, seals and small vessels for ad bead preparation and sealing work. The seals were usually cut from the estate (soapstone) and carved in antiglio or made from a copper burn. The beads were made from a variety of materials, but the carnelian is especially noteworthy. They include a variety of Attach carnelian and long barrel beads crafted with extraordinary skill and precision. Shells and ivory also worked and were used for beads, roots, combs, bracelets, and so on.

There are all signs of mass production in the pottery of Sindh cities. A considerable proportion of the wheel is thrown on the wheel (probably the same type of whale wheel that is still found today in the Indus and the West, as is typical of ordinary Indian wheels in the rest of the subcontinent). The majority of pottery is simple, well-formed and fired but lacks aesthetic appeal. Most of the pottery has a red slip and is painted with a black decoration. Large pots were probably made on the turntable. In painted designs,

traditional vegetable patterns are common and the widespread geographical design of Balochistan’s painted pots provide easy-to-navigate maps, such as cross-cut circles or scale patterns. Birds, animals, fish and more interesting landscapes are relatively rare. Out of the shape of the vessel, the shallow platter on a long stand (known as the offering stand) is noteworthy, as is a tall cylindrical vessel with small holes in the entire length and often at the top and bottom. Is open. The work of the latter ship remains a model.

Although there is little left, much interest is found in pieces of cotton cloth exported from Mohenjo Daro. They provide the earliest evidence of a crop and industry for which India history has long been known. It is assumed that raw cotton may have been cut, woven and probably dyed in cities for dyeing, as indicated by the presence of Dior cars.

The stone, though largely missing from the Gadas River plain of the Indus, played an important role in Harappan material culture. Scattered sources, most of which are based, were used as major factory locations. Thus, the large blades of stone found at the Mohenjo Daro site began with Sukkur’s shiny efforts, where they were probably killed in quantity by manufactured houses.

Trade and external contacts India history

It has been observed above that there was significant uniformity of material culture in the area covered by the Indus civilization. This suggests co-ordination and integrated administration and reflects the state’s internal trade. Finding evidence of the actual export of goods is not always easy, but at Sukkur, prominent Sukkur stone blades and widespread spread trades are suggested. Other commodities also appear to indicate trade, such as the almost bronze-like brass vehicles found at the intersection of Darrow and Harappa, for which a common breed must be controlled.

The wide range of crafts and special materials has also led to the building of economic relations with people living outside the state of Harappan. Such trade can be understood in two ways: first, the acquisition of raw materials and other goods from village communities or forest tribes in areas adjacent to Sindh’s culture. And second, trade with the cities and empires of Mesopotamia. The former type is quite an indication, even if the areas from which the specific material was taken are not easy to identify.

Gold was almost certainly imported from this cluster of settlements that spread around the gold fields of northern Karnataka, and copper could be obtained from several sources – mainly from Rajasthan. The lead may have come from Rajasthan or elsewhere in india history. Lapis lazuli was probably imported directly from Iran from the mines of Badakhshan, and probably from Turquoise. Others included Fossil from Karnataka (a kind of chromium-rich smile), from Iran, auction from Maharashtra, and Jade from Central Asia. There is very little evidence that the consumables gave what they had in exchange for material exchange – possibly unbearable goods such as cotton textiles and perhaps different types of beads. They also have copper tools or weapons.

There are both literary and archaeological evidence for trade with Mesopotamia. Clearly sealed seals were used to seal the bundles of merchandise, as clay seal imprints or indoor or sack marks are also testified. The presence of numerous seals in Sindh and other Mesopotamian cities and the discovery of the seal of the “Persian Gulf” in Lothal otherwise known as the Persian port of Dalmun (present-day Bahrain) and Felika. From Mesopotamia – The Quintessential Trade Co-ops suggested by the Lothal Dock provide mutual support. The goods shipped to Mesopotamia in exchange for silver tin, wool included luxury goods such as wood and precious forests, ivory, lapis lazuli, gold,

and luxurious beads, pearls, and shell and bone markers. Textiles, and cereals and other foodstuffs. It seems that copper rings were imported from Lothal from a place known as Magan (presumably in present-day Oman). Other potential trade commodities, include products specifically grown in each respective region, which are naturally occurring in Mesopotamia, and cotton fabrics and poultry, which are not the main product of Mesopotamia in the region of Sindh.

Mesopotamian trade documents, inventory lists and official records of the Melho (the ancient Acadian name of the region of india history) supplement the seals and archaeological finds of Harapan. Literary references to the Melodian trade history of Acadian, and Som, and the Aegean Larsa period (ie 2350–1794 BC), but, as the texts and archaeological data suggest, this trade probably, dominated the D early. The document was started in (C). 2600 BCE). During the Acadian period, the Melhohan vessel sailed directly to the ports of Mesopotamia, but through the Eocene Larsa period, the Dalmun Melohan and Mesopotamian, merchants were admired. By then the old Babylonian period, the trade between the two cultures had completely ceased. India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history India history

Languages ​​and scripts, weights and measures

To maintain such a wide-ranging relationship, that lies within the size and uniformity of the Harappan state and the extent of trade links, a well-developed means of communication will be needed. The attempted script has been denied for a long time trying to read it, and therefore the language is unknown. Recent texts Recent reviews have attracted, many scholars regarding the sequence of indications on logs to the view that the language is not of the Indo-European family nor is it closer to Samaria, Hurrian or Elamite. If it belongs to any modern language family, it appears to be Druidin,

which is currently spoken throughout the southern part of the peninsula of india history. The isolated member of this group the Brahvi language, is spoken in West Pakistan, which is close to these areas of Harapan culture. The script, written from right to left is known to date to over 2,000 weird short syllables, ranging from one letter to 20 characters. There are more than 500 signs, many of which are known to be combinations, of two or more symbols, but it is not yet clear whether these symbols are theoretical, logical or other. During the past decades numerous studies, have been carried out, including the Russian team led by Yury Valentinov Nuruzov and a Finnish group led by Isco Parpola. Despite numerous claims of reading the script, no general agreement has been reached yet.

The grabbers also used regular weights and measures. Preliminary analysis of the fair number of well-formed chert cuboid weights suggests, that they are lower binary systems – 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 for and for a decimal system. Follow 160, 200, 320, 640, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 8,000, and 12,800 وزن weight units weighing 0.8565 grams (0.0302 ounces). However, a recent analysis, which included the extra weight of Lothal, proposes a different system, which weighs from two series.

The basic principle in both series was decimal, in which each decimal number was multiplied by two and the ratio of the central series, was 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200. 500 (?). This suggests that much remains to be done to understand the full complexity of the weight system. Excavation found several measurement scales. One was 1.32 inches (3.35 cm), which probably grew to 13 13.2 inches (33.5 cm), apparently associated, with the same “toe” that was widespread in West Asia. There is another brass rod that measures 0.367 inches (0.93 cm) in length, which is apparently a half-digit hand 20.7 inches (52.6 cm), which is also widespread in West Asia and Egypt. Measurements of some structures indicate that in practice these units were correctly implemented.

It has also been suggested, that some curious items have been correctly made an optical quadrilateral with which surveyors can present the correct angles. In view of the high accuracy of the construction work, this view seems quite respectable.

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