Pakistan History

Pakistan History

Pakistan History
The region of Pakistan was a source of civilization. In the Stone Age, hunter-gatherers lived 300,000 or more years ago, in the Potohar Plateau and Swan Valley in northern Punjab. Excavation on the plateau of Balochistan shows a more modern culture that flourished from 4000 to 2000 BC. In Kot Digi, Khairpur District during this period the early culture of the Bronze Age was developed. These early civilizations rose to prominence in the cities of the Indus Valley, of which Harappa is most notable. These societies had a proficiency in town planning and image writing.

Pakistan History In 327 BC Alexander the Great attacked with the Macedonian army Later

the Mauryas, belonging to India, ruled over northern Punjab, replacing the Bactrian Greeks of Afghanistan and the Central Asian tribes. As a result, different religions prevailed: Buddhism (under the Moray), Hinduism and, with the Arab conquest in the eighth century, Islam.

Pakistan History Under Arab rule, two major kingdoms came into being:

Al-Mansura and Multan. The Gajnarid Sultans rose to prominence in Punjab in the 11th century. The later rise of the Mughals, which began in Central Asia, continued from 1536 to 1707; their reign remained unchanged until 1857. They established a sophisticated, royal administration and left a huge legacy of castles and walled cities, gardens and gateways, mosques and tombs.

European traders arrived in the suburbs in the early 17th century. Pakistan History

The English became the dominant force through the East India Company. After the failed coup against Britain in 1857, the British took direct control. Gradually a national Muslim identity emerged, led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1815–89) The All India Muslim League was founded in 1907

As we moved towards the independence of the subcontinent it became clear that there could be no reconciliation between, Hindu and Muslim interests. The campaign for the establishment of an independent Muslim state gained popularity in the 1920s and 30s. It was led by philosopher and poet Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Pakistan History Pakistan was established as an Islamic state after independence in August 1947,

British Indian
British Indian

before the partitio n of the British Indian Empire. It was originally comprised of two parts, West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) separated by 1,600 km. The partition. of the Indian territory was followed by India’s war with Kashmir over India, and large numbers of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs migrated, to re-settle in new borders, leading to widespread violence, financial loss and Death occurred. With the arrival of Indian Muslims and the departure of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan, Pakistan, became a fully Muslim society. Jinnah, who was honored as Quaid-e-Azam, or the great leader died in 1948.Pakistan History

In 1956, Pakistan became a federal republic.

Pakistan History It has long been in military rule. His first prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan, was assassinated in 1951. In 1958 martial law was announced and political parties abolished. General (later Field Marshal) Ayub Khan became president in 1960 and shaped the ‘fundamental democracy’ that led. However, his failure to win the 1965 war against India and accusations. of corruption and corruption, slammed his position. In the east, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s Awami League has raised complaints about the Bengali population. Ayub Khan resigned in 1969 and was taken, over by General Yahya Khan who held the first national elections in independent Pakistan in December 1970.

Pakistan History East Pakistan

Demanding greater autonomy for East Pakistan, on one platform, Mujeeb and Awami League won a majority in Pakistan’s general elections. Meanwhile Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the majority. in the West. Despite Mujib’s victory he was prevented by the Pakistani authorities from becoming the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth, and the Awami League subsequently issued its plans for a new constitution for a sovereign state in the east. As a result of this military intervention civil war broke out in the eastern region in 1971. The Indian army intervened in support of the Bengalis. Pakistan History Pakistani forces withdrew and Bangladesh became an independent state. Pakistan was separated from the Commonwealth. in 1972 but re-joined in 1989.

constitution introduced in 1973,

constitution introduced in 1973, Bhutto became prime minister. He sought to reform agriculture and nationalize large sections of industry and finance. In July 1977, the army, led by General Zia-ul-Haq, intervened in civil unrest. Zia declared martial law and arrested Bhutto,

accused of plotting to kill a political opponent after a controversial trial. Despite international appeals he was hanged in April 1979 General Zia-ul-Haq, promised elections within 90 days, but ruled without them, until his death. He assumed the presidency and started an Islamist program. In 1985, the ban on martial law and political parties was lifted, Bhutto’s daughter returned from exile to lead the People’s Party and in August 1988 Zia died in a plane crash. Pakistan History

Pakistan History (MQM)

MQM
MQM

The November 1988 elections brought the People’s Party to power in a coalition with the Migrant National Movement (MQM). However, the MQM left the alliance in October 1989, and in August 1990 Bhutto was sacked by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and accused of corruption. The National Assembly, was dissolved and a caretaker. leader remained in place until the Islamic Republic’s unity led by Nawaz Sharif in October 1990 achieved a decisive electoral victory. Sharif pursued economic reforms and privatization and enforced Shariah (Islamic) law until 1993 when the president and prime minister resigned under pressure. From the army, paving the way for fresh elections, which brought Benazir Bhutto back to power with a small majority.

November 1996,

Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari
Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari

In November 1996, President Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari, used the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution, at the behest of Army High Command and opposition leaders, and dissolved the National Assembly, which ended the Bhutto government and brought corruption, financial incompetence. And was accused of human. rights abuses. General Chat Chat Lounge The new elections. were held in February 1997. Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) – Earlier, the main component of the Islamic Democratic. Alliance won 134 seats in the National Assembly and Sharif became prime minister. Bhutto’s Pakistan Peoples Party has retained only 18 seats. In April 1997, Sharif eliminated, the president’s ability to dissolve the National Assembly, gaining the support of the People’s Party to win the two-thirds majority needed to repeal the Eighth Amendment. He also took over from the president. the appointment of Supreme Court judges and military chief of staff.

In October 1999,

In October 1999 Sharif ordered the dismissal of Army Chief of Staff General Pervez Musharraf, and he refused permission to land on a commercial, plane in which he was returning from Karachi (official visit to Sri Lanka). The army resisted the orders of the prime minister and seized power immediately, dismissing the government and arresting Sharif. Musharraf saw it necessary to justify his actions to restore both, the economy, and the deteriorating political situation. Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG). suspended Pakistan from the Commonwealth Councils while waiting. for the restoration of democracy.

Kashmir

Kashmir Mountain
Kashmir Mountain

Since 1999, the Kashmir dispute with India has grown exponentially,

when militants, with the help of Pakistani troops, cross the Line of Control at Kargil and engage in major battles with Indian forces. More than a thousand people. were killed in the fighting. In July 1999, Pakistan was finally relinquished. to India’s controlling territory, but the tension, which was exacerbated by the 1998 nuclear experience, (India had exploded five nuclear devices on May 11 and 13, 1998, and Pakistan had six (May 28 and 30), remained intact.

At the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, in 2001,

At the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, in 2001, President General Pervez Musharraf attended, a summit in India, focusing on the Kashmir dispute. Although no favorable result has been obtained, this first meeting, between the leaders of the two countries since 1999 is characteristic of a renewed. interest in both sides seeking to resolve this long-standing problem. By May 2002, however, India had mobilized, a large army along the Line of Control. and the two countries were on the brink of war again.

Tensions subsided in October 2002 when India.

Tensions subsided in October 2002, when India. reduced its troops with the Line of Control. Diplomatic relations were restored, in August 2003, and a ceasefire was agreed with the Line of Control and was implemented from November 26, 2003. Peace talks between India and Pakistan began in 2004, which led to historic developments in relations between the two countries. The talks resulted in a number of measures to restore communication and build trust, including coordinated relief efforts, after the October 2005 earthquake.

Constitutionally, the Prime Minister serves as the Chief

Constitutionally, the Prime Minister serves as the Chief, Advisor to the President of Pakistan on important matters and, with appointment to every branch. of the military leadership, also plays an important role in ensuring control of the military, through the Chairman Joint Chiefs. ۔ The Prime Minister’s powers have increased significantly with each branch’s delicate system of check and balance. These positions disappeared, during the 1960s and 1977 /85 years when martial law was enacted. In each of these periods, the military junta had the powers of the prime minister under the president’s leadership.

The current and current holder, in this position is Imran Khan, who was elected in this capacity after the nationwide general elections. held in August 2018.

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